Tale of Tabla
By N. Scott Robinson
from Modern Drummer 25, no. 3 (March 2001):
90-92, 94, 96, 98, 100.
Tabla virtuoso Zakir Hussain Khan, son of the great
tabla master Ustad Allarakha Khan, has performed with a
diverse assortment of artists. From India’s classical master’s
Ravi Shankar, Allarakha, Shivkumar Sharma, Lakshminaravana
Shankar, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Ali Akbar Khan, T. H. "Vikku"
Vinayakram, Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman, to jazz pioneers of
the West such as John McLaughlin, Shakti, Mahavishnu Orchestra,
George Brooks, Pat Martino, Billy Cobham, Jan Garbarek,
John Handy, Peter Erskine, Pharoah Sanders, and pop musicians
Mickey Hart, Earth, Wind & Fire, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Van Morrison,
Carlos Santana, Kitaro, and George Harrison. His innovative
work has involved him in recordings with groundbreaking
percussionists Airto Moreira, Glen Velez, Trilok Gurtu,
Giovanni Hidalgo, Diga Rhythm Band, Tor Dietrichson, Reinhard
Flatischler and his own innovative percussion ensemble The
Rhythm Experience. Zakir has done soundtracks for films
and at times appears as an actor. Most know him as a master
of the tabla but I wondered about his background as a percussionist.
In previous Modern Drummer interviews with Glen
Velez, Airto Moreira, and Naná Vasconcelos I tried to provide
insight into the collective development of a "New Percussionist."
Because Zakir Hussain’s tabla playing is so innovative,
I pursued him on this point to see how his interaction with
Indian and jazz musicians and the percussion community might
have influenced his ideas about playing tabla and other
percussion. This is what he had to say . . .
NSR: What part of India
did you grow up in?
ZH: I grew up on
the west coast of India, in the state called Maharashtra,
in the city called Bombay, even though I was originally
from the North.
NSR: What kind
of non-Indian culture was there? Was there a lot of Western
ZH: There was quite
a bit of non-Indian culture. India had a major Western influence
because of being under the British government for many moons.
The popular kind of music that we have is like a combination,
or a fusion, to use another word, of Western and Eastern
influences. Our film music [filmi] was always a combination
of violins, cellos, basses, piano, horns; along with the
Indian instruments, playing together. So I grew up playing
in those orchestras myself, and grew up listening to that
kind of music, so that influence was already there. We were
watching Hollywood movies from the 1940s and '50s, so there
were all these Latin influences that came in, through the
Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers movies, and the musicals,
and West Side Story, and jazz. We watched Elvis Presley,
and all sorts of things when we were kids. So India was
sort of like a melting pot of all these various types of
music, which were already there since the 1940s.
NSR: When did you
start to formally study the tabla?
ZH: I was studying
the tabla from two and a half or three years old.
Ever since I can remember, I've found myself playing the
instrument, practicing, and learning about it. So since
my very, very early childhood I was already studying the
tabla. By the time I was twelve, I was playing
professionally in these film orchestras, and in concert
with various musicians.
NSR: Besides the
classical tabla, did you ever study other drumming traditions
ZH: You have to
know other drumming traditions of India as an accompanist
because of the repertoire. As a drummer you need to know
the singing repertoire, the instrumental repertoire, and
the dance repertoire, so you are able to accompany them
better. So we have to study all these elements of Indian
NSR: Does that include
like the folk drumming?
ZH: It includes
folk; it includes everything. The tabla was an
instrument that was played as a folk instrument as well
as a classical instrument.
NSR: Among the kinds
of strokes that you do on the tabla and the bayan,
you have a few that don't seem to be of the traditional
classical tabla style.
It depends on what you call traditional, because
tabla played 150 years ago was definitely not the
same as tabla played fifty years ago. It changes;
you find better ways of making the instrument, you improve
the tonal quality of the instrument, and that dictates how
you play it, and approach it. So it all changes. I know
that my teacher sounded very different from his teacher,
and then his teacher before him sounded different. So as
you go along, the instrument is improved upon. Then there
was the advent of sound amplification, and that allows you
to highlight different frequencies and tonal textures of
the instrument. Therefore, the playing of the tabla
changes. That has always been the case with music, anywhere
in the world.
NSR: What I specifically
meant is that you do a stroke where you bend the tabla’s
open sound, the tun, with the hammer, or when you
snap the fingernail of your index finger against the skin
of the bayan. What led you to come up with those?
Did you ever get that from other drumming traditions?
ZH: Actually, it
was just some stuff that I was working on, or experimenting
with, in terms of sound. When I started listening to percussionists
all over the world, I found that the approach was not just
to play the repertoire, but also to work with the sound
an instrument has, work with the surface of the instrument,
and find various places to play, and experiment with subtle
changes of tone. That's something that percussionists all
over the world did, and I just felt that there was no reason
why I could not approach my instrument, tabla,
with the same focus. That's how I ended up finding different
ways of using the bayan almost like a bass, and
using the tabla’s open sound [tun], and
seeing if I could bend the tones and sounds of it.
NSR: What brought
you to the USA, and how did you get involved in playing
musics that were not Indian classical, such as the fusions
with John Handy or Shakti?
ZH: When I first
arrived in the USA in 1970, I played nothing but Indian
classical music for many years before I actually got involved
in doing fusion. I arrived here because Ravi Shankar had
sent for me to play an Indian classical concert tour with
him. My father [Allarakha Khan], who always
played with him, was not feeling well at that time, so I
came to replace him. I played Indian classical music for
four or five years in the United States, playing with Ali
Akbar Khan, and his son Aashish Khan, and Ravi Shankar,
and various other artists, before I ran into people like
Mickey Hart, John McLaughlin, and others, and started working
with them. I was also teaching Indian classical music at
the University of Washington, in Seattle.
NSR: When you play
with John Handy, Pat Martino, Shakti, Pharaoh Sanders, or
Mickey Hart, what kind of adapting do you do, actually playing
the tabla or playing other instruments, when you
play with those kinds of artists?
ZH: Well, the instrument
tabla is a very . . . what should I say? It's a
versatile instrument. It fits in any kind of music that
you want; it's just a question of mentally being aware of
that. Then, technically, being able to have the kind of
knowledge that you need to be able to use the instrument
in all possible manners and forms. For me, having grown
up in India playing film music, there was already some idea
of how I would work with Western instruments because we
had drumset, guitars, piano, the string section, the horn
section and everything, already there. We were playing Indian
popular music, with all these instruments. So the tabla,
as I grew up playing, was already, for me, a familiar area,
to work with these instruments. At the same time, rhythm
is a universal language, so it is much easier for a rhythm
instrument to be able to flow into any kind of music than
for a melody instrument. So that advantage was already there.
So having that kind of homework in India, and arriving here,
and being young enough to not be tied down into a rigid
discipline of what my classical music was all about, I was
able to bend a bit here and there, and to be able to fit
in with whatever was going on. Like this hammer on the tabla,
bending of the tones, that kind of stuff, I was able to
do many such little forays into the unknown percussive use
NSR: With Pharaoh
Sanders sometimes you play the mbira, and with
Shakti you've played kanjira or congas. Did you
actually study other drumming techniques, or do you apply
tabla technique to other kinds of drums?
ZH: I eventually
did learn. We did have what you would call the Indian versions
of the bongos, and the congas in India. When we were playing
for films, we obviously kind of fooled around with those
instruments. But never really used the exact technique to
approach these instruments; that, of course, I found out
when I got here. But, having said that, I must say that
tabla is the kind of instrument which, if you are
able to play well, gives you the kind of technical knowledge
you need for your hands, and also gives your fingers enough
of a fluid movement capacity so that you are able to play
just about any other hand percussion instrument in the world.
I would apply my tabla technique to these instruments.
In that sense I believe that it’s a unique kind of playing
that I do. If I were to play a djembe, congas,
bongos, tar, or deff, I would probably
play it differently than a master of those instruments would,
and it would lend a unique approach to that instrument because
of my tabla technique.
NSR: When you first
met T. H. "Vikku" Vinayakram, what kind of exchange was
there between the two of you in Shakti?
ZH: When I first
met him, I was already aware of the South Indian drumming,
and I had already played with musicians of that variety
in India. I was very curious about the South Indian tradition,
so I had studied a bit about it. So when I met Vinayakram,
when we got together to do Shakti, I kind of knew the tradition
that he came from. I had already been working with L. Shankar,
the violinist, before that, so I was aware of Vinayakram's
background. When I approached him, I sort of had an idea
of what I was going to do. Vinayakram, however, had not
seen me play before. So he was a bit confused as to how
he would approach me. But, as I said, rhythm is universal,
and some of the repertoires that the South Indian drummers
and the North Indian drummers play are similar. So we were
able to kind of find a middle ground, or some sort of familiar
territory. You see, it was much easier for me to cross over
and do South Indian rhythms than him to cross over and do
North Indian rhythms. So I just moved over to the South
Indian part of it. So the first few years we just kind of
worked in the South Indian rhythm frame when we worked together,
and gradually Vikku started to come out and experiment with
North Indian drumming patterns.
NSR: When you've
come into contact with things like congas, and the South
Indian rhythm, does the kind of practicing you do ever change,
especially after you left India?
ZH: Well, Indian
drumming is a very muscular tradition. So you learn to understand
what each muscle in your hand does, and learn to be able
to control its movement, and the flow of energy through
it. So my approach, I mean, it may not be the same for any
other tabla player, my approach is that of a person
who is curious, you know? I'm able to use my hands in a
certain manner, and having also played the piano a bit,
I'm a bit ambidextrous. So I'm able to use my right hand
and my left hand as if they were interchangeable. So what
happens is I just approach the instrument as a curious person
who wants to find out what the instrument does, what the
tones of the instrument are, and what would happen if I
played at the edge, or what would happen if I played it
in the center, and what would happen if I combined this,
and what would happen if I just used the tip of my finger,
as opposed to my palm, as opposed to the all of my fingers,
and opposed to one finger as opposed to three or four .
. . you know, all those things. So I approach the instrument
in that manner, and I am able to then extract from it the
kind of response I need.
NSR: Did you ever
ZH: Just fooling
around in Indian films. As I said before, we grew up with
those all around us, so there was this curious fiddling
around with these instruments. I can play a backbeat on
the drumset. But to really open up and play, à la
Jack DeJohnette [chuckles], or Elvin Jones, or Max
Roach, I don't think so [chuckles].
NSR: It sounds as
if you developed a similar kind of independence between
the hands much in the way drumset players have?
ZH: The hands,
but not the legs! I'm not talking about feet; I'm talking
about hands. I said earlier that when you're playing tabla,
you train your hands enough to be able to play just about
any hand drum.
NSR: When you record,
is there a different approach that you take when you're
working in the classical Indian tradition, and when you're
doing the Western fusion things?
ZH: It depends
on whether you're recording fusion or you're recording Indian
classical music. In Indian classical music, you already
have repertoire, and you know it, and you play, and it's
just a question of when you're supposed to finish.
NSR: What about when
you work with someone like Pat Martino or John Handy? Do
you have an approach for selecting instruments for recording
ZH: No; I think
the music dictates what I'm going to play. I mean, my impulse
always is to first reach for the tabla. If I find
that the tabla is doing fine, but I could do something
else on another instrument, if a song kind of suggests a
certain pattern, or a certain sound that would really make
it sound right, then I go for that kind of an instrument.
But I never really bring a fixed set of instruments to a
rehearsal. I may do that for the first day, but then for
the next day I may add according to what the sounds I hear.
NSR: How do you approach
composition and improvisation?
ZH: It's very difficult
to describe the concept of improvising. People have tried
to do that over the past 500 years, and they have not been
able to come up with a complete explanation. Obviously,
it's a question of what you feel comfortable with; whether
you feel comfortable jumping into an unknown territory without
a parachute. I think it's something like that. I mean, you
go out there with an idea, or a pattern, and see where it
takes you in terms of how you explore that pattern, how
you get into it, and how comfortable you are with a backbeat
somewhere in the back of your subconscious mind, knowing
that it's there, and you know where it is. In a more basic
sense, you're improvising when you're walking because you're
walking, and you're doing something that is so natural to
you. You're doing it, but you don't walk the same way. When
you walk, you sometimes sidestep a pool, you stop, you turn,
you walk faster or slower, or whatever you do. As you're
walking, you're looking at signs, you're window shopping,
you're saying hello to a passer-by, or you're avoiding a
car; you're doing all those things. You're improvising.
But you are able to do that because you've done it all your
life. Therefore, you don't need to focus on being able to
do it. Improvising is like that. You do that no matter if
you're playing jazz, or you're taking a solo when you're
playing Latin percussion, or you're playing Indian music.
It is something similar; you must have done it at least
500,000 times before. Then you have it. You can walk up
to an instrument and say, "I'm going to improvise." Of course,
you can just bang on an instrument and do five million different
things, and say, "Well, I've just improvised." But it has
to be meaningful; it has to have some aesthetic value. It
has to create a picture on a blank canvas, which might be
a four-four beat. Say, you're going to write a poem, or
you're going to paint a beautiful vision. It has to be a
complete vision; it cannot be a few dots of this, and fifteen
dots of that, and twelve dots of that all thrown together.
NSR: Some of the
compositions you have for The Rhythm Experience ensemble
are quite arranged. How does what you've been describing
fit with the way you compose?
ZH: It's a composition,
so a composition is composed, and therefore it is a fixed
piece of music. When you have fifteen people playing together,
or twelve people, or ten people, or however many, you need
to have an idea of what's going on so everybody's on the
same page. So you compose. But within that composing you
always leave spaces for things to happen. That's what jazz
is all about; when you have a composed song with chord changes,
but then you tell a saxophone player, "Okay, you're improvising,
and these are the chord changes to work with;" and you improvise,
and then you bring it back. That's what composing is all
about, when it comes to, say, Diga Rhythm Band, or The Rhythm
Experience, or any kind of similar group of people working
together . . . or Planet Drum, or whatever.
NSR: When you come
contact with players like Trilok Gurtu, Glen Velez, Airto
Moreira, or Giovanni Hidalgo, is there ever any kind of
exchange between yourselves, and is there an influence on
ZH: I'm sure that
without wanting to we do influence each other. I've been
tremendously influenced by people like Airto Moreira, Giovanni
Hidalgo, or Babatunde Olatunji. Working with Glen Velez
has been a revelation. Mickey Hart has been such an incredible
influence in terms of introducing me to the various aspects
of world drumming. But you don't meet up with the idea that
you're going to impose your tradition on someone else; that
you're going to come out saying, "Oh, I have a five thousand-year-old
tradition, so I am the senior, and you do what I say." There's
no such thing. When I approach working with people like
Giovanni, or Vikku, or Airto, we play together. It doesn't
matter who starts what; we work together. I'm sure that,
while playing together, what I do may suggest something
to Airto, and what he does may suggest something to me,
or to Giovanni. Those suggestions are influences by themselves,
and they help us to understand each other's approach to
drumming much better. The more we do it, the more we learn
about each other's approach to rhythm and a healthy respect
develops that way. When all of us musicians are sitting
together, and we are talking, sometimes just having a drink,
or having dinner together, we sit and talk about tradition,
and talk about music, and the spirit that it has, and the
kind of power that it carries. It's amazing! I still remember,
last year I was sitting in this very small little German
town on the border of Switzerland and Germany with Glen
Velez in a restaurant, and we talked for two hours, about
the tradition, about drumming, and about music. Just Glen
and I, we were just talking about it. That's how we relate
to each other; that's what music is all about. I remember
having a conversation with Airto and Milton Cardona where
we were together playing a concert, about the gods among
the Afro-Cuban drumming; Shango, the adventures of the god
Shango with drumming, and Haiti and its drumming and witchcraft,
and everything. I mean, we talk about all kinds of things
when we get together. So, you know, it's special when musicians
NSR: What was it
that led you to start the label Moment Records?
ZH: Well, I just
felt that I would start a very, very visible platform for
Indian musicians to perform their music. I felt that the
best way of presenting Indian classical music was in its
entirety as it's performed on the stage. Because it's an
improvised form of music; it's a spontaneous form of music;
so the best moments of that music happens in front of the
audience, when it's being performed, and the audience gets
into it. So I felt that that has to be happening. A kind
of platform has to be set up for Indian musicians to display
their wares. That's why we came up with Moment Records;
for the great moments of Indian music! All of our Indian
classical records are live performances. We just put them
out in their entirety, whether it's one piece of sixty-two
minutes or two pieces of seventy-four minutes, it doesn't
matter. It just comes out as it was performed; no mixing,
no reverb, no bass or treble added; it's just straightforward
NSR: I was wondering
about your film Zakir and His Friends. There were
a variety of percussionists in there: Indonesian, and children
from Venezuela, and Caribbean. Were these musicians that
you've worked with?
ZH: They were musicians
I have come in contact with, you know, over the years that
I've traveled extensively all over the world. And so when
the film was being planned, we talked about all these various
traditions that existed, that needed to have some kind of
a say, and be shown to the world, what they are all about!
I mean, the kids in Venezuela are doing their thing [playing
on their faces with their hands but sounding like congas].
I mean, it's so important that people should know how kids
are able to focus on things, and stay out of trouble, and
do these things, and make a life for themselves, it's important!
But unfortunately, because of the time constraints that
a film has, there are many other traditions that did not
make it to the film. We hope that we'll be able to make
NSR: You mentioned
children, and I just had a thought: you've grown up with
this incredible tradition, and I'm wondering about how life
compares today, with the very strong economic, political,
and technological forces of the West. Do you feel that tradition
is at all threatened, changing, or stronger?
ZH: I think the
tradition is stronger, because for some reason the man and
the woman of today are much more culturally inclined. They
understand tradition better; they are better listeners of
music and better focused when they watch theater or art
of any kind. So for me, I feel that tradition and culture
stand a better chance now than they ever did before. I mean,
in the olden days, music was a second-hand profession. People
would say, "Oh, yeah, you are a drummer, what else do you
do for a living?" But nowadays people understand that art
is important; culture holds something that we must relate
to. Tradition, roots-these are very important. How we use
them in today's world describes us, and tells people what
we are all about! You see more and more people watching
Western classical music, or going to opera, or seeing all
kinds of other artists that travel all over the world. I
see the same faces going to see Miriam Makeba, Mick Jagger,
or going to see Ravi Shankar! I mean, it's amazing how a
young person of today is so well rounded in terms of culture.
NSR: Do you have
any non-musical influences?
influences? Non-musical influences [ponders question].
Well, I guess that, when you talk about non-musical influences,
critics who have critiqued my music have influenced me.
The kinds of suggestions they have made, or the kinds of
things that they have said, have made me look into the way
I perform, and tweak my approach to music, according to
what I heard people say that made sense to me. Stuff like
that is a non-musical influence. Music is a way of life
for us. It is what we grow up with, it is what we eat, drink,
and sleep. Musicians are not tied down by religious boundaries,
by spiritual boundaries, by any kind of boundaries. They
live their lives the way the music dictates it. If my music
says that I must treat a person a certain way, then that's
the way it would be. If my music says that I must live my
life this way, then that's the way it is. For instance,
if I'm playing accompaniment to a sitar player, I must understand
his temperament in the first five minutes that I'm on the
stage with him, and be able to give the kind of rhythmic
accompaniment that he needs to be able to express himself.
That means having some kind of a psychological idea of what
this person is all about. The music dictates that because
of having understood, through music, what this person is
saying, I'm able to also then translate that into what that
person is all about, offstage. So anything that I do, speaking
in terms of the way my life is, it's, I imagine, 99.9 percent
influenced by music. It's kind of difficult to say that
there are non-musical influences.
[For more info on Zakir
Hussain, see: http://www.momentrecords.com].
Zakir Hussain Selected
Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna
Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna CD 1995 Moment Records
Lasting Impression CD 1996 Moment Records MR 1016
Night Spinner CD 1998 Moment Records MR 1018
Girija Devi CD 1989 Moment Records MR 1004
Diga Rhythm Band
Diga CD 1976 Rykodisc RCD-10101
Global Village CD 1987 Global Pacific R2-79302
Earth, Wind & Fire
Powerlight CD 1983 Columbia CK-38367
Hard Work CD 1976 Impulse! 9314
John Handy & Ali Akbar
Two Originals: Karuna Supreme & Rainbow CD 1975
Living in a Material World CD 1973 Capitol 94110
Spirit into Sound CD 2000 Arista 14071
Zakir Hussain Khan
Making Music CD 1987 ECM 831544-2
Zakir Hussain and The Rhythm Experience CD 1991
Moment Records MR 1007
Masters of Percussion CD 1993 Moment Records MR
Sambandh CD 1998 Terrascape TRS 4118-2 [Belgium]
Pandit Jasraj (Zakir
Pandit Jasraj CD 1992 Moment Records MR 1009
Violin Trio CD 1995 Moment Records MR 1014
Pandit V.G. Jog
Pandit V.G. Jog CD 1991 Moment Records MR 1003
Tabla Tradition: Rhythms from India CD 1991 EMI
Ustad Allarakha Khan
and Zakir Hussain Khan
Tabla Duet CD 1991 Moment Records MR 1001
Ustad Amjad Ali Khan
Beyond the Sky CD 1984 Padmini Music PN-101
Ustad Amjad Ali Khan CD 1991 Moment Records MR
The Genius of Ustad Amjad Ali Khan CD 1992 EMI
CDNF 1 50072
Homage to Mother Teresa CD 1999 Moment Records
Fire Dance CD 1998 Mythos 7
Montreux Concerts CD (17 box set) 1974-1999 (2003)
Warner Jazz 5046697012
The Other Side of This CD 1988 Rykodisc RCD-10207
Remember Shakti CD 1999 Polygram 559945
The Believer CD 2000 Verve 549 044-2
Save Our Children CD 1999 Polygram 557297
Song for Everyone CD 1984 ECM 823 795-2
Eternal Light CD 2001 Moment Records MR 1020
Concert for Peace CD 1993 Moment Records MR 1013
Ravi Shanker Music
Recorded in Concert Cassette 1977 Ravi Shanker
Music Circle RSMC-03
Hariprasad Chaurasia: Flute Concert Cassette 1980
Ravi Shanker Music Circle RSMC-22
Vijay Raghav Rao: Flute in Concert Cassette 1980
Ravi Shanker Music Circle RSMC-24
Ravi Shanker Music Circle Cassette 1981 Ravi Shanker
Music Circle RSMC-27
Ravi Shankar Music Circle Cassette 1981 Ravi Shanker
Music Circle RSMC-29
Shivkumar Sharma: Santoor Concert Cassette 1982
Ravi Shanker Music Circle RSMC-31
Pandit Shivkumar Sharma
Pandit Shivkumar Sharma CD 1993 Moment Records
Shakti with John McLaughlin CD 1975 Columbia CK-46868
Handful of Beauty CD 1976 Tristar 80915
Natural Feelings CD 1977 Columbia 48122
Tabla Beat Science CD 2000 Axiom/Palm 2046
Chevron School Broadcast "Music Makers" -
Percussion LP 1973 CHEV M-21/M-22/M-23/M-24 (contains
interview and tabla demonstration by Zakir Hussain).
Shiv Kumar, Zakir,
A. Chakraborty, V. G. Jog 1981 Ameer Khusro Society
V.G. Jog, Zakir, Malabika Kanan 1981 Ameer Khusro
Society of America
Girja Devi, V.G. Jog, Zakir 1981 Ameer Khusro
Society of America
Ashwin Batish & Zakir Hussain: In Concert Part 1
1986 Batish Records
Ashwin Batish & Zakir Hussain: In Concert Part 2
1986 Batish Records
Circles-Cycles: Kathak Dance 1989 Documentary Educational
Live from Savai Gandharva Music Festival, June '92
V1992 Alurkar Music House AV 114
Musical Festival of India 1997 Musical Festival
Zakir and His Friends 1998 Horizonte Film / Interartes
The Speaking Hand: Zakir Hussain and the Art of the
Indian Drum 1999 (documentary film in 2 parts, 104
minutes, directed by Sumantra Ghosal)
Remember Shakti. Shakti 2000 (Verve 016 578-2,
CD/DVD silk box set)
Vietnam: A Television
History USA TV
Apocalypse Now 1979 Paramount Home Video
Heat and Dust 1983 MCA Home Video
Little Buddha 1993 Miramax Home Entertainment
In Custody [Zakir as an actor!] 1993 Columbia TriStar
Saaz 1997 Eros International
Gaach (The Tree) 1997 Merchant Ivory Productions
Vanaprastham (The Last Dance) 1999 CLT-Ufa Intl.
Everybody Says I’m Fine 2001 [India]
Bordowitz, Hank. "Zakir
Hussain." Jazziz 9, no. 5 (September 1992): 69.
DeFilippi, M. A. "Planet
Drum: Zakir Hussain." Talking Drums 1, no. 1 (1992):
Doerschuk, Andy. "No Mystery:
The Percussion Tour of the Year" [Mickey Hart, David Garibaldi,
Zakir Hussain, Giovanni Hidalgo, and Sikiru Adepoju]. Drum!
5, no. 7 (November/December 1996): 36-37, 41-45.
Doerschuk, Andy and George
Marsh. "Zakir Hussain: Communicating with the World Through
the Language of the Tabla." Drum! 3, no. 1 (September/October
1993): 32-34, 36, 39-40, 52.
Harbert, Benjamin J. “Zakir
Hussain.” Chicago Percussion & Rhythm
6, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2004): 8-9.
Helig, Steve. "Zakir Hussain:
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