The generic terms mbira or thumb piano are used to indicate a percussion instrument of African origin. It consists of a wooden board or box with strips of metal or wood attached in such a way that the player's thumbs or fingers can pluck the metal strips to produce a rhythmic melody. Mbira are made from an assortment of materials, such as wood, metal gas and insecticide cans, gourds and coconut shells, and in a great variety of sizes, shapes and types, and they exist as acoustic or electric instruments. The number of traditional African types alone would take an entire book to detail, and a diverse assortment of these instruments can be found in the Western world as well.

Sanza of Collin Walcott (Kondi from Sierra Leone)


The terms "thumb piano" and "finger piano" are names in the West for the instrument and yet, at the same time, they are the most inappropriate from an African perspective (also incorrect are African piano, African nail violin, hand piano, and Kaffir piano). Ethnomusicologists use another term that places all these instruments in a single generic category: "lamellaphone" (also lamellophone) designates any instrument with plucked keys (or lamellae) attached to a soundboard, with the possible addition of a resonator. What is called a "thumb piano" or "finger piano" is often a specific instrument from an African culture. Such instruments may be used, in an African traditional setting, in ritual ceremonies, such as those performed by the Shona people of Zimbabwe. Renaming the instrument for Western purposes is akin to calling a concert violin a "fiddle." Nevertheless, "thumb piano" and "finger piano" are names found on many recordings and in many publications. To complicate matters further, on Western recordings a generic name like mbira, kalimba, or sanza may appear, but it is more often used as an exotic name than as an identifier of a specific African instrument. The term "kalimba" was popularized by the African music researcher Hugh Tracey (from England). Traveling to Zimbabwe in the 1920s (then known as Rhodesia), Tracey was attracted to the Shona mbira and eventually made an international version by the 1960s that he called kalimba. Although the term "mbira" is a Shona term meaning an instrument specific to their culture, the term is used in this article generically as is often the case in non-African popular musics. Following is a list of mbira-type instruments (with their usual number of keys) and the country where they are found. All of the instruments listed are used in musics native to Africa or the African Diaspora. The list demonstrates the number of instruments of similar appearance and construction that are found in different places and often with only slightly different names.

Various Sanza

Lamellaphone of Chokwe People in Gabon

Lamellaphone of Bamana People of Mali

Lamellaphone of Lwena People of Angola

Kadongo of Uganda

Kalimba of Zambia

Ilimba of Gogo People of Tanzania

Chilimba of Dr. Hukwe Ubi Zawose of Tanzania


sanza (21 metal or 18 raffia lamellae), mbo nggo (8 raffia lamellae), mboton, timbrh—Cameroon; sanza (9-12), sanzi (9-12)— Cameroon and Central African Republic; kalimba, lukembe—Congo; fang (6), likembe, kisansi, lukembe (10 wooden lamellae), luba (4), mbanja (8), yombe (10), zande (7)—Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaïre); tom—Ethiopia; aprempensuah—Ghana; bonduma, gbelee, kongoma—Liberia; kalimba, malimba—Malawi; danda, chisanza (22), malimba (26), tomboji, utee—Mozambique; jidiga—Niger; agidigbo (5), akpata, sologun, ubo—Nigeria; mbila dza madeza (27), mbila tshipai (11-18)— Republic of South Africa; bundoma (9, 10), kondi (9), kongoma (3), kututen (9, 11)—Sierra Leone; afosangu—Sudan; chilimba (15), ilimba (36, 55, 66-72), malimba—Tanzania; kadongo/budongo (plural) (10, 14, 15, 17), lukeme—Uganda; kalimba (14), luvale (13)—Zambia; hera (26, 34), karimba (15, 17, 19), matepe (25, 29), mbira dza vadzimu (22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27), mbira dza vaNdau (29, 30, 34), munyonga (47, 52, 56), ndimba (15, 17), njari (29, 36), nyonga nyonga (15), nyunga nyunga (15)—Zimbabwe.

Various African Lamellaphones


laongo bania, madimba de Btsche, marimba (16), sanza—Brazil; marímbula (7)—Colombia; marímbula (4-7)—Cuba; marimba, marímbola (5-6)—Dominican Republic; malimba (4-7)—Haiti; rhumba box (5-7)—Jamaica; marímbula (3-5)—Martinique; marímbula (6), marimbol—Mexico; Puerto Rico; banja (5), box bass (5-6), marímbula (5-6)—Trinidad and Tobago; marimba brett—United States; quisanche—Uruguay; marímbola (5-6)—Venezuela.

In addition to the traditional instruments found in Africa and the African Diaspora, more generic versions, based on those of traditional African design, have been made by Western instrument makers. Makers in North America often give the instrument the generic name of thumb piano, mbira, or kalimba. A Western innovation is the purely electric mbira (the "e.mbira"), made by Lucinda Ellison (and also those made by David Bellinger), which is constructed in a similar fashion to the solid-body electric guitar, with internal pickups under the bridge and a jack to plug into an amplifier. Fully electric mbira dza vadzimu are designed and built in the USA by Dan Pauli (including mbira dza vadzimu with extra keys, chromatic mbira, and electric bass mbira dza vadzimu that are much lower than traditional Shona instruments). Other North American acoustic makers include Ryphon Gray, Scotty Hayward, Kevin Nathaniel, and Leonard Nicoll. Portuguese maker Nuno Cristo has developed an entirely bamboo mbira dza vadzimu tuned an octave lower than Shona mbira. Perhaps the most original designer of modern lamellaphones in the USA is Bill Wesley who, along with Patrick Hadley, has designed a completely new type of lamellae layout and an acoustic - electric instrument called the array mbira (120 lamellae, four octaves, chromatic). One difference between African and Western lamellaphones is that the former most often have shells, metal rings or bottle caps attached which make a buzzing sound when the keys are plucked—a desired African aesthetic. Western-made lamellaphones often do not have buzzers attached, which gives the instruments a plainer sound but makes recording in popular music less problematic.

Bamboo mbira dza vadzimu made by Nuno Cristo

North American kalimba design by Ryphon Gray & Scotty Hayward

Kalimba of Samite of Uganda

Solid body stereo electric mbira dza vadzimu by Dan Pauli (37 lamellae)

Chromatic mbira by Dan Pauli (29 lamellae)

David Gweshe with munyonga

Mbira DzaVaNdau from Southeastern Zimbabwe

Bill Wesley's array mbira, 120 lamellae, four octaves, chromatic, electric pick up

David Bellinger's electric kalimba

Tuning and Technique

Tuning represents another important difference between African and Western instruments. African instruments use mainly two types of scales for lamellaphones—a five-pitch scale and a seven-pitch scale—although other types may be found as well. Tuning in Africa is regional, which means that a tuning from one particular area might not match exactly with a tuning from another area if the scale intervals were compared. This is part of an African aesthetic in music—tuning varies across the continent and the variations add to the beauty of an area's music. In contrast, tuning in the West has become standardized, and variations are considered 'out of tune' so the pentatonic and heptatonic scales used on Western made instruments have all been standardized. A few different heptatonic scales are played on the Shona lamellaphones in Zimbabwe, such as on the mbira dza vadzimu. These scales may appear to be major (Dambatsoko), natural minor, Mixolydian (Nyamaropa), or Phrygian (Gandanga), with some interval differences from Western scales (see mbira tunings).

Another difference between African and Western keyed instruments is in how the keys are arranged. A Western keyboard (as on the piano) is arranged from lowest pitches to highest from the left to the right. Most lamellaphones are arranged with the lowest key in the center, and the player alternately plucks right and left or vice versa (depending on how the keyboard has been set up) to ascend the scale. The Shona mbira dza vadzimu are an exception—they make use of three manuals on a single instrument. The left side of the instrument is played primarily with the left thumb and has two rows of seven keys in octaves arranged from the center to the left for ascending, while the right side, which is played with the right thumb and forefinger, is arranged from the center to the right for ascending.

Mbira dza vadzimu of Zimbabwe

Njari of Zimbabwe

The basic technique for playing the mbira involves plucking the keys, or lamellae, with the fingertips and fingernails. Some techniques involve playing with the index, middle and ring fingers of each hand, as on the Nigerian agidigbo while the Cameroonian sanza makes use of all of the fingers but no thumbs. Other techniques involve the use of the thumbs plucking down on the keys while the index fingers pluck up from beneath them, as on the mbira dza vadzimu from Zimbabwe (often metal finger picks are placed on the tips of the thumbs and index finger for ease of play). The thumbs are used to pluck the keys of the sanza in the Central African Republic. The material used for the keys varies: some are made from a heavier, stiffer metal that requires the player to have a longer thumbnail to play comfortably, while others may be of a softer, more flexible metal that makes plucking with the fingertip comfortable. The mbira can be played melodically by plucking out a melody on the keys, or in a rhythmic fashion by plucking a pattern on one side of the keyboard while a pattern that fills in between the first is plucked on the other side.

Pierre Didy Tchakounté with sanza from the mangambeu LP cover Magabe Man

Use in Popular Music

In a very broad sense, two types of popular music make use of mbira: popular musics of Africa and parts of the African Diaspora, and Western popular musics (non-African). In Africa, popular music can be considered an urban phenomenon. That is to say, urban situations make possible a detribalized zone of cultural interaction in which strict adherence to specific cultural traditions may not operate. Urban musics in Africa are the result of the combining of local traditional elements with Western influences, such as the radio, the microphone, and music business, and instruments like the electric guitar, saxophone, trumpet, electric bass, keyboards and drumset. The urban music of the Shona People of Zimbabwe, known as chimurenga (uprising), involves a mixing of mbira music with rock, Christian hymns, jazz and various types of traditional songs. This music came about as a result of the uprising of indigenous Black Africans against White European colonialism. The uprising began in the 1890s and, by the 1970s, fully Western influences (in terms of the use of electric instrumentation) in chimurenga songs had become evident. After failing to win a music competition to rock artists, Thomas Mapfumo and the Blacks Unlimited formed in 1977 and started incorporating aspects of traditional Shona music, such as mbira dza vadzimu patterns played on multiple electric guitars as well as up to three mbira players including Chartwell Dutiro. Another important Zimbabwean artist is Ephat Mujuru with the Spirit of the People, whose music involves the use of electric Shona mbira. Cameroonian Pierre Didy Tchakounté featured both the traditional wooden-keyed sanza and a more modern metal-keyed version in his mangambeu urban music recordings from the 1970s. Hukwe Ubi Zawose of Tanzania may be viewed as a neo-traditionalist who has rebuilt his instrument, the ilimba, to include between 66 and 72 keys tuned in just intonation, many of which are used for ‘sympathetic’ resonance. Another African musician, Francis Bebey, has studied various musical traditions in Africa and mixes them together on his recordings, often including lamellaphones. The music of the Orchestre Bana Luya (children of the Baluba people) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC formerly Zaïre) also features an electric lamellaphone. An important figure in early Zaïro-Congolese urban music was Antoine Moundanda who formed the band Likembé Géant in the early 1950s that used three giant likembe and played Congolese rumba, polkas, and traditional music and recorded many LPs for the Ngoma label. Konono N°1 is a modern ensemble from the DRC that performs on self-made electrified likembes developed by Mawangu Mingiedi. All of these recorded examples of African uses of lamellaphones in urban music are from the past 50 years, but one of the earliest examples of the use of these instruments in recorded popular music is from the African Diaspora.

Antoine Moundanda (center) & Likembé Géant on likembe from DRC

Electrified likembe of the group Konono N°1 from DRC

Mawangu Mingiedi on electrified likembe, of DRC group Konono N°1

Muyamba Nyunyi on 20" bass likembe from DRC

Electric likembe from DRC

Electric likembe from DRC

Giant-size, box-shaped instruments with between four and seven keys attached (8-13 in some modern versions, see Cloud Nine marímbula with wooden lamellae tuned to circle of fifths pictured below) appeared all over the Caribbean and parts of South America as a result of the slave trade. These instruments were known by several different names (see nomenclature above) and were used to provide a bass sound in various musics. Although they have mostly been replaced by the acoustic bass, some can still be found in Jamaica (for example, in the mento music of the Jolly Boys or The Triangles, among others), Trinidad, Puerto Rico and, occasionally, Cuba. The earliest surviving recordings were made in Cuba in 1925 by the bands Terceto Yoyo and Sexteto Habenero, with Gerardo Martinez and Chucho Aristola, respectively, on the marímbula. The marímbula has also been used in modern percussion music compositions by composers Amadeo Roldan (Two Ritmicas, 1930) and William Russell (Three Cuban Pieces, 1939).

German made modern marímbula & American Cloud Nine marímbula

Close up of Cloud Nine chromatic marímbula

The Triangles mento group from Jamaica

Even though they are not traditional to the West, mbira appear in many kinds of popular music recordings in Europe and the USA, from neo-traditional African music, blues, jazz and movie/television/radio soundtracks to Broadway shows and creative "world music." One of the earliest US recordings to include the instrument was the recording Drums of Passion by Babatunde Olatunji in 1959. Olatunji had come from Nigeria to study in the United States and with the growing trend among African Americans to promote African awareness, his music became popular. Olatunji plays a kalimba on this recording, which features a host of jazz musicians, including Yusef Lateef. An earlier recording, Kind of Blue by Miles Davis (1959), is an example of a melodic/harmonic concept in jazz (modal jazz) inspired by the mbira. In his autobiography (1989), Davis states that, having been inspired by African lamellaphone music, he was trying to limit the scales and chords of his compositions on this recording in an effort to work in a restricted melodic/harmonic framework as a lamellaphone does. Another jazz recording, The African Beat (1962) by Art Blakey and the Afro-Drum Ensemble (an ensemble of African drummers and African-American jazz musicians), features Yusef Lateef on the kalimba. In 1966, the Broadway show Wait a Minim! featured folk music from southern Africa, with Paul Tracey playing the mbira (Tracey also appeared on Johnny Carson’s The Tonight Show, demonstrating the mbira and several other African instruments). A recording that features a blend of electronic music and world instruments by composer Jon Appleton and world jazzman Don Cherry (on kalimba) is Human Music (1970). Bluesman Taj Mahal started playing solos on a Hugh Tracey kalimba in his concerts after first hearing the instrument in a movie. His recording Recycling the Blues and Other Related Stuff (1972) features a live solo.

As a novelty device, the instrument made an unusual appearance in a comedy act by Robert Klein, an example of which is included on his 1973 recording A Child of the Fifties. Art music composers have scored for lamellaphones as well including Lou Harrison in The Music for Violin with Various Instruments—European, Asian and African (III. Allegro moderato) (mbira, 1969) and George Crumb (Hugh Tracey kalimba) in Night of the Four Moons (1969) and Music for a Summer Evening (Makrokosmos III) (1974). In jazz fusion, bassist Paul Jackson played the marimbula with Herbie Hancock in 1973. With the offshoot group The Headhunters, Jackson sometimes quoted John Coltrane's "A Love Supreme" as a bass figure on the marimbula on recordings such as Survival of the Fittest (1975). Perhaps the most mainstream use of the instrument occurs in recordings by the group Earth, Wind & Fire, featuring Maurice White as one of three percussionists. White also used a Hugh Tracey kalimba (an early example is on "Kalimba Story" from Open Our Eyes in 1974), and he was able to successfully perform fast solos on the instrument and incorporate it into the body of his ensemble’s music.

Collin Walcott's Sanza Style

One of the most creative lamellaphone players in the United States was the inimitable percussionist/sitarist Collin Walcott. Walcott played a kondi, which he referred to generically as "sanza," made from an insecticide can, which had nine keys and was tuned to a scale with no third or sixth and a flat seventh in Western tuning (E-F#-A-B-D-E-F#-A-B from the center, alternating right to left). His technique was unusual in that he flipped the instrument over so that the keys faced away from him, and he plucked with the index, middle and ring fingers of both hands. He used this instrument first on a recording of composer Irwin Bazelon’s Propulsions: Concerto for Percussion (composed/recorded in 1974), then on the group Oregon’s recording Out of the Woods (1978) and later on Barry Wedgle’s Kake (1982); it also featured prominently in many of his compositions recorded between 1979 and 1983 with the trio Codona (with Don Cherry and Naná Vasconcelos). Since Walcott’s death in 1984, one of his students, Rich Goodhart, has perpetuated the technique and style on his own recordings.

During the 1980s and 1990s, percussionists such as Adam Rudolph, Glen Velez, Paolo Vinaccia, Layne Redmond, John Bergamo, Okay Temiz, Rich Goodhart, N. Scott Robinson, Nexus, Chocolate [Julio Algendones], B. Michael Williams, Jack DeJohnette, Santiago Vazquez (from Argentina), Mark Duggan (from Canada), and Bob Moses used mbira creatively in their music, as did jazz musicians Ishmael Wadada Leo Smith, Steve Tibbetts, Egberto Gismonti, Jean-Jacques Avenel and the Canadian multi-ethnic pop band Ashkaru (with Chip Yarwood on mbira). Other musicians who play make non-traditional creative use of various mbira include Virginia Barrett, Jomo, Armando Ortega (of the Chicano-Shona influenced band Wagogo), Billy X. Curmano, and Patrick Hadley, among others. Composers for Hollywood movies and for radio recordings have used the lamellaphone creatively on soundtracks as well. One example is the film Lethal Weapon 2 (1989), with music by Michael Kamen, which has mbira in the background music to several scenes. In the 1990s, the nationally broadcast Talk of the Nation show on National Public Radio, with theme music by Bob Boilen, a sampled kalimba was featured prominently with orchestral accompaniment. Television viewers may be misled by hearing a similar sounding instrument on an occasional soundtrack to The X-Files (1990s), with music by Mark Snow, but this is another example of sampling technology on contemporary keyboards and is not a real lamellaphone player (keyboards such as the Korg M-1 featured a kalimba sample as early as 1988).


Organological, technical and timbral diversification by Western percussionists in popular music was fairly common after 1960. Lamellaphones were adopted by some musicians after they had been exposed to African sources either directly or indirectly through films and recordings. Although lamellaphones are not so common that players are abundant, Western companies have continued to construct various types and distribute them. Although instruments are abundant in the West, their use in popular music is largely limited to creative percussionists and other musicians on occasional recordings.

[An edited version of this article was published as "Mbira (Thumb Piano)" in the Continuum Encyclopedia of SPACE SPACE SPACE Popular Music of the World, Volume 2: Performance and Production. Edited by John Shepherd, David Horn, SPACE SPACE Dave Laing, Paul Oliver, and Peter Wicke. New York: Continuum, 2003, 388-394].



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Nembire, Katonje Judah ("Mr. Kanga-Fry"). How to Play Zimbabwe’s Mbira Huru, Using a Very Simple Number Method, SPACE Staff Notation, and Tonic Solfa, Distance Education: Step One. Mount Darwin, Zimbabwe: Nembire School, 1993 SPACE (booklet with cassette).

________. How to Play Zimbabwe’s Mbira Huru, Using a Very Simple Number Method and a Companion Record: Steps SPACE One and Two. Harare: The Zimbabwe Mbira Distance Education Project (ZIMMDEP), 2000 (booklet with cassette).

Novitski, Paul. "Percussion Discussion: Embracing Mbira." Rhythm Music 5, no. 8 (1996), 18-22.

Ortiz, Fernando. Le Marímbula. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial Letras Cubanas, 1995.

Ottenberg, Simon. Seeing with Music: The Lives of Three Blind African Musicians. Seattle: University of Washington Press, SPACE 1996.

Redinha, José. Instrumentos musicais de Angola: Sua construção e descrição, notas históricas e etno-sociológicas da música SPACE Angolana. Coimbra, Portugal: Instituto de Antropologia, 1984.

Robinson, N. Scott. "Mbira (Thumb Piano)." In Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 2: SPACE SPACE Performance and Production. Edited by John Shepherd, David Horn, Dave Laing, Paul Oliver, and Peter Wicke. New SPACE York: Continuum, 2003, 388-394.

________. "BataMbira: A Marriage of Sacred Music from Cuba and Zimbabwe." Percussive Notes 5, no. 5 (October 2007): 62.

Rodríguez, Olavo Alén. "Cuba." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South America, Mexico, Central America, and SPACE the Caribbean. Edited by Dale A. Olsen and Daniel E. Sheehy. New York: Garland Publishing, 2, 1998, 822-839.

Rouget, Gilbert. "Note sur l'accord des sanza d'Ebézagui." Revue de Musicologie 68 (1982): 330-344.

Santoro, Gene. Stir It Up: Musical Mixes from Roots to Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Sehman, Melanie and Steve Sehman. "Deconstructing the Mbira." Percussive Notes 44, no. 5 (Ocotber 2006): 30-31.

Shungu, Djamba Kitende and Lisala Makodi. "Regard sur la collection des sanza de l'Institut des Musées Nationaux du Zaïre." SPACE African Study Monographs 13, no. 2, (1992): 111-126.

Ssalongo, Christopher Kizza and Peter Cooke. Teach Yourself the Budongo. Sutton Coldfield, England: K & C Productions, SPACE 2004.

Theirmann, David. "The Mbira in Brazil." African Music Society Journal 5, no. 1 (1971): 90-94.

________. "A New World Mbira: the Caribbean Marímbula." African Music Society Journal 5, no. 4 (1975/1976): 140-148.

Thieme, Darius L. "Three Yoruba Members of the Mbira-Sanza Family." Journal of the International Folk Music Council 19 SPACE (1967): 42-48.

Thompson, Donald. "The Marímbula, an Afro-Caribbean Sanza." Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research 7 (1971): SPACE 103-116.

Tracey, Andrew. "Mbira Music of Jege A. Tapera." African Music Society Journal 2, no. 4 (1961): 44-63.

________. "Three Tunes for 'Mbira dza vadzimu'." African Music Society Journal 3, no. 2 (1963): 23-26.

________. "The Mbira Class of Instruments in Rhodesia (1932)." African Music Society Journal 4, no. 3 (1969): 78-95.

________. "The Tuning of Mbira Reeds: A Contribution to the Craft of Mbira Making." African Music Society Journal 4, no. 3 SPACE (1969): 96-100.

________. How to Play the Mbira (dza vadzimu). Roodepoort, Transvaal: International Library of African Music, 1970.

________. "The Matepe Mbira Music of Rhodesia." African Music Society Journal 4, no. 4 (1970): 37-61.

________. "The Original African Mbira?" African Music Society Journal 5, no. 2 (1972): 85-104.

________. "The Family of Mbira: The Evidence of Tuning Plans." Zambezia 3, no. 2 (1974) 1-10.

Tracey, Hugh T. "A Case for the Name Mbira." African Music 2, no. 4 (1961): 17-25.

________. A New Musical Instrument from Africa. Roodepoort, Transvaal: African Musical Instruments, 1967.

________. "The Mbira Class of African Instruments in Rhodesia (1932)."African Music Society Journal 4, no. 3 (1969): 78-95.

Turino, Thomas. "The Mbira, Worldbeat, and the International Imagination." The World of Music 40, no. 2 (1998): 85-106.

________. Nationalists, Cosmopolitans, and Popular Music in Zimbabwe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Udow, Michael W. "African Percussion Music." Percussionist 9, no. 4 (1972): 119-128.

van Oven, Cootje. "Letters to the Editor." African Music 3, no. 1 (1962): 112.

________. "The Kondi of Sierra Leone." African Music Society Journal 5, no. 3 (1973/1974): 77-85.

Williams, B. Michael. "Getting Started with Mbira dza Vadzimu." Percussive Notes 35, no. 4 (1997): 38-49.

________. Learning Mbira: A Beginning. . . . Everett: HoneyRock, 2001.



Azim, Erica Kundidzora. CD. Mbira Dreams: Trance Music of Zimbabwe. The Relaxation Company CD3261. 1996: USA. SPACE (Erica Kundidzora Azim-mbira dza vadzimu).

Bebey, Francis. LP. Africa Sanza. Makossa ADSC-11-86015. 1982: USA. (Francis Bebey-sanza).

________. LP. Akwaaba: Music for Sanza. Original Music OMA 105. 1984: USA. (Francis Bebey-sanza).

________. CD. Didiye. Pee Wee Music PW 017. 1997: France. (Francis Bebey-sanza).

Berliner, Paul F. CD. The Soul of Mbira: Traditions of the Shona People of Rhodesia. Nonesuch H-72054. 1973: USA. SPACE(Various artists-various Shona mbira).

________. LP. Africa: Shona Mbira Music. Nonesuch H-72077. 1977: USA. (Various artists-various Shona mbira).

Chawasarira, Chaka. Cassette. Solo Matepe and Vocals. Mbira 303. 2000: USA. (Chaka Chawasarira-matepe).

________. CD. Magore Kore. Mhumhi Records (no #). 2001: USA. (Chaka Chawasari-matepe & 19-lamellae karimba).

Chiweshe, Stella Rambisai [Stella Nekati-Chiweshe]. CD. Kumusha. Piranha Pir 42-2. 1990: Germany. (Stella Rambisai SPACEChiweshe-mbira dza vadzimu).

Gora, Sekuru (Thomas Wadharwa) with Tute Chigamba & Moyo. CD. Vakuru Chaivo. Mhumi Records (no #). 2001: USA. SPACE(Thomas Wadharwa a.k.a. Sekura Gora & Tute Chigamba-mbira in dongonda & mavembe tunings).

Gwara, Newton and the Nheravauya Mbira Group. CD. Nhengure. Mhumi Records (no #). 2001: USA. (Newton Gwara a.k.a. SPAC SMatemai-mbira).

Gweshe, David. CD. Mhuri YeKwaNohoreka. Mhumhi Records (no #). 2001: USA. (David Gweshe-munyonga).

Khoza, Valanga. CD. The Journey. Mabuhay World Music MBR 00013. 1997: Australia. (Valanga Khoza-kalimba).

Konono N°1. CD. Orchestre Tout Puissant Likembe Konono No. 1 de Mingiedi: Lubuaku. Terp African Series AS09. 2004: SPACEHolland. (Mingiedi Mawangu-electrified lead likembe, Makuntima Mawangu-2nd electrified likembe, Kabuika SPACE SPACENsekula-electrified bass likembe & Kuavita Nzimbu-electrified likembe).

________. CD. Congotronics. Crammed Discs CRAW 27. 2004: Belgium. (Mawangu Mingiedi & others-electrified likembe).

Koufoudila, Boniface. LP. Kasongo! Modern Music of the Belgian Congo. Capitol T-10005. 1955: USA. (Boniface SPACE SPACE SPACEKoufoudila-likembe).

Kunzwana Mbira Group. CD. Shamu YaPasi. Mhumi Records (no #). 2000: USA. (Judith Juma & Rhoda Dzomba-mbira dza SPACE vadzimu).

Mapfumo, Thomas and The Blacks Unlimited. CD. Shumba: Vital Hits of Zimbabwe. Virgin 3-1022-1. 1990: USA. (Contains SPACE the Shona mbira dza vadzimu piece "Taireva" performed on electric guitars).

________. CD. Chimurenga '98. Anonym 0001. 1999: USA. (mbira dza vadzimu).

Maraire, Abraham Dumisani. LP. African Story: Songs Told and Sung by Abraham Dumisani Maraire. University SPACE SPACE of Washington Press (no number). 1969: USA. (Abraham Dumisani Maraire-karimba).

Maraire, Dumisani and Ephat Mujuru. CD. Shona Spirit. Music of the World CDT-136. 1996: USA. (Dumisani SPACE SPACE SPACE Maraire-karimba and Ephat Mujuru-mbira dza vadzimu).

Mashoko, Sekuru Simon. CD. Hallelujah. Mhumi Records (no #). 2001: USA. (Sekuru Simon Mashoko-njari).

Mashozhera Mbira Group. CD. Hurombo. Mhumi Records (no #). 2001: USA. (Victor Matanga-gandanga tuned mbira).

Mbira DzeNharira. CD. Kudya KweNzeve. Mhumi Records (no #). 2001: USA. ( Mbira DzeNharira-7-piece mbira orchestra).

Moundanda, Antoine & Likembé Géant. CD. Kesse Kesse. Indigo LBLC 2541. 1997: France. (Antoine Moundanda & Likembé SPACE Géant-likembe).

Olatunji, Babatunde. CD. Drums of Passion. Columbia CK 8210. 1960: USA. (Babatunde Olatunji-kalimba).

Samite of Uganda. CD. Dance My Children Dance. Shanachie 65003. 1988: USA. (Samite Mulondo-kalimba, finger piano).

Suso, Fody Musa. CD. The Dreamtime. CMP CD 3001. 1990: Germany. (Foday Musa Suso-kalimba).

Tchakounté, Pierre Didy. CD. Best of Pierre Didy Tchakounté Golden Collection Vol. 1: Magabe Sophistiqué-Versions SPACE SPACE Originales. Ngumsam Records [no #, no date]. Mid-1970s. (Pierre Didy Tchakounté-sanza).

________. CD. The King of Mangambeu in U.S.A.: La Consécration Vol. 1. Simba Music [no#, no date]. Mid-1970s. (Pierre SPACE Didy Tchakounté-sanza).

Tirikoti, Garikayi. CD. Maidei. Limitless Sky Records GT0603. 2001: USA. (Garikayi Tirikoti & Lee Kumbani-mbira dza SPACE SPACE vadzimu).

Tracey, Andrew and Paul Tracey with Nigel Pegram. LP. Wait a Minim! London AM 58002. 1966: USA. (Paul SPACE SPACE SPACE Tracey-kalimba).

Tracey, Hugh. LP. Reeds (Mbira) 1: The Music of Africa Series v. 28-Musical Instruments 2. Gallatone GALP 1323. 1960: SPACE South Africa. (Examples of various lamellaphones in traditional African settings-various players).

________. CD. Other Musics from Zimbabwe, Southern Rhodesia, 1948, '49, '51, '57, '58, '63. SWP Records SWP 012/HT 06. SPACE 1948-1963: The Netherlands. (Examples of various players of matepe, mbira dza vaNdau, and mbira njari from SPACE SPACE Zimbabwe).

________. CD. Northern and Central Malawi, Nyasaland, 1950, '57' 58. SWP Records SWP 014. 1950/1957/1958: The SPACE SPACE Netherlands. (Examples of various players of kalimba from Malawi).

________. CD. Kalimba & Kalumbu Songs, Northern Rhodesia, Zambia 1952 & 1957. SWP Records SWP 010. 1952/1957: The SPACE Netherlands. (Examples of various lamellaphones from Zambia).

Various Artists. CD. Southern Mozambique, Portuguese East Africa, 1943, '49, '54, '55, '57, 63. SWP Records SWP 021. SPACE SPACE 1943-1963: The Netherlands. (Examples of various mbira from Mozambique).

________. CD. Tanzania Instruments, 1950. SWP Records SWP 022. 1950: The Netherlands. (Examples of various likembe SPACE from Tanzania).

________. CD. Secular Music from Uganda, 1950 & 1952. SWP Records SWP 024. 1950/1952: The Netherlands. (Examples of SPACE various likembe from Uganda).

________. CD. Forest Music, Northern Belgian Congo, 1952. SWP Records SWP 016. 1952: The Netherlands. (Examples of SPACE various Mangbetu players of likembe from Congo).

________. CD. Zair: Musiques Urbaines á Kinshasa. Ocora CSS9007HM65. 1978: France. (Features the Orchestre Bana SPACE Luya on electrified likembe).

________. CD. Central Africa: Sanza Music in the Land of the Gbaya. VDE CD-755. 1993: Switzerland. (Various Gbaya SPACE People-sanza).

________. CD. Traditional Music of Cancune, Mozambique: ChiSanza & Nyanga dzeCancune. Mhumhi Records (no #). 2001: SPACE USA. (Simoes John Pemba-ChiSanza).

________. CD. Mbira DzaVaNdau: From Chimanimani to Birchenaugh Bridge. Mhumi Records (no #). 2003: USA. (Various SPACE Ndau musicians-mbira dza vaNdau).

________. CD & DVD. Congotronics 2: Buzz 'n' Rumble from the Urb 'n' Jungle. Crammed Discs CRAW 29. 2006: Belgium. SPACE (Various ensembles from Democratic Republic of Congo on acoustic & electrified likembes).

Zawose, Hukwe Ubi. CD. Tanzania—The Art of Hukwe Ubi Zawose: Songs Accompanied by Ilimbe and Izeze. JVC SPACE SPACE VIGC-5011-2. 1989: Japan. (Hukwe Ubi Zawose-ilimba).

________. CD. Chibite. Real World CAROL 2358-2. 1996: USA. (Hukwe Ubi Zawose & Charles Zawose-ilimbas).

Zawose, Dr. Hukwe & Charles Zawose. CD. Mkuki Wa Roho: "A Spear To the Soul". Womad 407-C. 2000: USA. (Hukwe SPACE Zawose & Charles Zawose-ilimbas).

Zawose, Hukwe Ubi and Michael Brook. CD. (Assembly). Real World 7243 8 12296 2. 2002: USA. (Hukwe Zawose & Charles SPACE Zawose-ilimbas).

Zengea Karimba Ensemble, The. CD. Vadzimuwe. ABF Skane ABFSK001. 1992: Sweden. (Tschaka Chawasarira & Zengea SPACE Karimba Ensemble-karimba).


African Diaspora
Chocolate (Julio Algendones). CD. Chocolate: Peru’s Master Percussionist. Lyrichord LYRCD 7417. 1990: USA. SPACE SPACE SPACE (Chocolate-Julio Algendones-kalimba).

Jolly Boys. CD. Sunshine ‘n Water. Rykodisc RCD 10187. 1991: USA. (Joseph Bennett-rhumba box).

Lititz Mento Band. CD. Dance Music and Working Songs from Jamaica. Haus Der Kulturen Der Welt SM 1512-2. 1992: SPACE SPACE Germany. (Cleveland Salmon-rhumba box).

Sexteto Habenero. 78 LP. Loma De Belen. Victor 594. 1925: Cuba. (Chucho Aristola-marímbula).

Terceto Yoyo. 78 LP. El Congrejito. Victor 578. 1925: Cuba. (Gerardo Martinez-marímbula).

Various Artists. CD. Hot Music from Cuba: 1907-1936. Harlequin HQCD-23. 1993: England. (Features both of the Cuban 78s SPACE in this discography-Chucho Aristola & Gerardo Martinez-marímbula).

________. LP. Musik från Västindien: Små Antillerna (Music from the West Indies: The Lesser Antilles). Compiled by SPACE Krister Malm. Caprice CAP 2004. 1977: Sweden. (Features Trinidadian parang music with unidentified marímbula SPACE player).

________. CD. Burundi: Musiques Traditionnelles. Ocora Radio France C 559003. 1988: France. (Features music from SPACE Burundi with sanza).


Western Art & Popular Music
Alfano, Jorge. CD. One Heart. Lyrichord 7431. 1997: USA. (Randy Crafton-mbira).

Ancient Future. CD. Dreamchaser. Narada 62754. 1988: USA. (Ian Dogole-kalimba).

Anders, Robin Adnan. CD. Omaiya. Rykodisc RCD 10442. 1999: USA. (Robin Adnan Anders-mbira).

Andersen, Arild. CD.  Arv. Kirkelig Kulturverksted FXCD 133. 1994: Norway. (Paolo Vinaccia-large sanza).

Appleton, Jon and Don Cherry. LP. Human Music. Flying Dutchman FDS 121. 1970: USA. (Don Cherry-kalimba).

Ashkaru. CD. Mother Tongue. Triloka 7214. 1995:  Canada. (Chip Yarwood-mbira).

Asza. CD. Asza. Pacific Line Music PM0410CD. 1995: Canada. (Joseph "Pepe" Danza-mbira).

Bandt, Ros. CD. Stargazer. Vox Australis VAST 004-2. 1989: Australia. (Ros Bandt-kalimba).

Bazelon, Irwin. CD. Music of Irwin Bazelon. CRi American Masters CD 623. 1992: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

Berliner with Kudu, Paul. LP. The Sun Rises Late Here. Flying Fish 092. 1977: USA. (Paul Berliner-mbira dza vadzimu).

Blakey, Art and the Afro-Drum Ensemble. LP. The African Beat. Blue Note BST-84097. 1962: USA. (Yusef Lateef-kalimba).

Bloque. CD. Bloque. Warner Bros. 9 47060-2. 1998: USA. (keyboard kalimba sample).

Bridges. CD. Bridges. Interworld 921. 1996: USA. (Randy Crafton-kalimba).

Codona. CD. Codona. ECM 1132 78118-21132-2. 1979: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

________. CD. Codona 2. ECM 1177 78118-21177-2. 1981: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

________. CD. Codona 3. ECM 1243 78118-21243-2. 1983: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

Crafton, Randy. CD. Duologue. Lyrichord LYRCD 7430. 1997: USA. (Randy Crafton-mbira).

Crandell, Richard. CD. Mbira Magic. Tzadik 8005. 2004: USA. (Richard Crandell-mbira).

Crumb, George. LP. Music for a Summer Evening (Makrokosmos III). Nonesuch H- 71311. 1975: USA. (Gilbert Kalish-Hugh SPACE Tracey kalimba).

Dalglish, Malcolm. CD. Pleasure. Ooolitic Music OM 1112. 1997: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-sanza).

Davis, Miles. CD. Kind of Blue. Columbia Legacy CK 64935. 1959: USA.

Deadline. CD. Down By Law. Celluloid CELCD 6111. 1985: USA. (Phillip Wilson-kalimba).

Dietrichson, Tor. CD. Global Village. Global Pacific R2-79302. 1987: USA. (Kim Atkinson-mbira).

Do'ah. CD. Companions to the Crimson Coloured Ark. Philo CD-PH-9009. 1986: USA. (Randy Armstrong and Ken SPACE SPACE LaRoche-Shona mbira).

________. CD. World Dance. Global Pacific R2 79304. 1988: USA. (Randy Armstrong and Ken LaRoche-Shona mbira).

Earth, Wind & Fire. CD. Open Our Eyes. Columbia/Legacy 61615. 1974. (Maurice White-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

________. CD. Spirit. Columbia CBS CK 34241. 1976: USA. (Maurice White-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

________. CD. I Am. Columbia CK 35730. 1979: USA. (Maurice White-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

________. LP. Faces. ARC/Columbia KC2 36595. 1980: USA. (Maurice White-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

________. CD. Powerlight. CBS CK 38367. 1983: USA. (Maurice White-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

Eliovson, Steve and Collin Walcott. CD. Dawn Dance. ECM 1198 829 375-2. 1981: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

Entourage and Theatre Ensemble, The. LP. Entourage. Folkways FTS 33866. 1973: USA. (lamellaphone).

Gioielli, Décio. CD. Kalimba. Dandemutande 355-C. 2001: Brazil. (Décio Gioielli-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

Gismonti, Egberto. CD. Sol do meio dia. ECM 1116 78118-21116-2. 1978: USA. (Egberto Gismonti-kalimba).

Goodhart, Rich. CD. Divining Signs. Beginner’s Mind Productions BMP 1001. 1988: USA. (Rich Goodhart-sanza).

________. CD. Affirmative Reply. Beginner’s Mind Productions BMP 1002. 1991: USA. (Rich Goodhart-sanza).

________. CD. Never Give a Sword to a Man Who Can’t Dance. Beginner’s Mind Productions BMP 0403. 1995: USA. SPACE SPACE (Rich Goodhart-sanza).

Hadley, Patrick. CD. EgyptiCat. Abracadabra Music Corporation [# unknown]. 2001: USA. (Patrick Hadley-5 octave array SPACE mbira).

Hancock, Herbie. CD. Head Hunters. Columbia/Legacy 471239 2. 1973: USA. (Paul Jackson-marimbula).

Harrison, Lou. CD. The Music of Lou Harrison. Phoenix PHCD 118. 1971: USA. (Kenyan mbira quartet).

Headhunters, The. CD. Survival of the Fittest. RCA 74321409522. 1975: USA. (Paul Jackson-marimbula).

Heap, Imogen. CD. Speak for Yourself. RCA 72532. 2005: England. (Imogen Heap-array mbira on the song "Clear the Area").

Hermann, Ralph. CD. Kalimba—Acid Wav Riff Audio. Forwardinoutback SF2. 2004: Europe. (Ralph Hermann-kalimba SPACE samples).

Holdaway, Mark. CD. Two Thumbs Up: Adventures on the African Kalimba. Mark Holdaway CD001, 2000.

________. CD. Christmas Kalimba. Mark Holdaway CD002, 2005.

Holland, Mark & N. Scott Robinson. Wind & Fire. CD, Cedar n Sage Music CS 7514. 2009: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-sanza, SPACE mbira dza vadzimu).

________. Lost In The Beauty Of It All. CD, Cedar n Sage Music CS 7517. 2013: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-Dongonda mbira SPACE dza vadzimu, Dambatsoko mbira dza vadzimu, kalimba).

Hooker, John Lee. CD. Free Beer and Chicken. Beat Goes On BGO CD123. 1974: USA. (Unidentified musician-kalimba).

Kaiser, Henry and David Lindley. CD. Sweet Sunny North: Henry Kaiser & David Lindley in Norway v. 1. Shanachie 640-57. SPACE 1994: USA. (Paolo Vinaccia-large sanza).

King Crimson. CD. Larks' Tongues in Aspic. EG  EGCD-7. 1973: USA. (Jamie Muir-kalimba).

Klein, Robert. CD. A Child of the Fifties. Rhino R4 70769. 1973: USA. (Robert Klein-kalimba).

Klug, Slats and Friends. CD. Lies and Love Songs. Rebo Music 132027. 2003: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-sanza).

Mahal, Taj. CD. Recycling the Blues and Other Related Stuff. Mobil Fidelity Sound Lab MFCD764. 1972: USA. (Taj SPACE SPACE Mahal-Hugh Tracey kalimba).

Moses, Bob. CD. Time Stood Still. Gramavision R2 79493. 1994: USA. (Bob Moses-mbira).

Moye, Famoudou Don. LP. Sun Percussion Volume One. Aeco 001. 1975: USA. (Don Moye-kalimba).

Nakai, R. Carlos and Wind Travelin' Band with Shonosuke Ohkura and Oki Kano. CD. Island of Bows. Canyon CR-7018. 1994: SPACE USA. (ESOH-kalimba).

Nauseef, Mark. LP. Personal Note. CMP 16. 1981: Germany. (Mark Nauseef-kalimba).

________. CD. Wun-Wun. CMP CD 25. 1992: Germany. (Mark Nauseef-mbira).

Oregon. CD. Out of the Woods. Discovery 71004. 1978: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

________. CD. Roots in the Sky. Discovery 71005. 1979: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

________. CD. Oregon in Performance. Wounded Bird 304. 1980: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

Ottopasuuna. CD. Ottopasuuna. Green Linnet GLCD 4005. 1992: Finland. (Kimmo Pohjonem-Gogo marimba).

Redmond, Layne and The Mob of Angels. CD. Since the Beginning. Redmond Recordings RRCD11. 1992: USA. (Layne SPACE SPACE Redmond-mbira).

Reid, Sandra. CD. Hal-An-Tow: Songs of Six Nations. Lyrichord 7425. 1995: USA. (Randy Crafton-kalimba).

Reijseger, Ernst and Michael Moore. LP. Cellotape & Scotchtape. Data 822. 1982: Holland. (Ernst Reijseger-kalimba).

Robinson, N. Scott. CD. World View. United One Records U1CD 402 4569 3027 2/New World View Music NWVM CD-01. SPACE 1994: USA/Germany. (N. Scott Robinson-sanza, bass sanza).

________. CD. Things That Happen Fast. New World View Music NWVM CD-02. 2001: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-karimba SPACE and Nolan Warden-karimba).

Rudolph, Adam and Moving Pictures. CD. Skyway. Soulnote 121269. 1994: USA. (Adam Rudolph-kalimba).

________. CD. Contemplations. Meta Records META 002. 1997: USA. (Adam Rudolph-kalimba).

Sanders, Pharoah. CD. Save Our Children. Verve 557 297-2. 1998: USA. (Zakir Hussain-array mbira).

Santana. CD. Welcome. Columbia 16142. 1973: USA. (Richard Kermode-kalimba).

Shadowfax. CD. Too Far to Whisper. Windham Hill WD-1051. 1977: USA. (G.E. Stinson-mbira).

________. CD. The Odd Get Even. Atlantic 20652P. 1990: USA. (G.E. Stinson-mbira).

Simon, Ralph. CD. As. Postcards POST 1004. 1981: USA. (Gene Adler-kalimba).

Smith, Ishmael Wadada Leo. CD. Kulture Jazz. ECM 1507. 1993: USA. (Ishmael Wadada Leo Smith-kalimba).

3 Mustaphas 3. CD. Heart of Uncle. Rykodisc RCD 20156. 1989: USA. (Hijaz Mustapha-mbira).

Tibbetts, Steve. CD. Exploded View. ECM 1335 831 109-2. 1986: USA. (Steve Tibbetts-kalimba).

ToKenKi. CD. Dance Latitude. TKM 2001. 1991: USA. (Kim Atkinson-kalimba).

Various Artists. CD. Live at the Knitting Factory, vol. 2. Knitting Factory Works KFWCD-98. 1989: USA (N. Scott SPACE SPACE Robinson-mbira).

________. LP. Concert Percussion for Orchestra. Time Records S/8000 (features recordings of the pieces by Amadeo Roldan SPACE and William Russell). 1961: USA (George Boberg-marímbula).

Vazquez, Santiago. CD. Mbira Y Pampa. Musical Antiatlas Producciones MAP 178. 2005: Argentina (Santiago Vazquez-mbira SPACE dza vadzimu).

Velez, Glen. CD. Handance. Nomad NMD 50301. 1985: USA (Glen Velez-mbira dza vadzimu).

________. CD. Seven Heaven. CMP CD 30. 1987: Germany. (Glen Velez-mbira dza vadzimu, mbira & Layne SPACE SPACERedmond-mbira).

________. CD. Border States. Interworld CD-21907. 1993: USA. (Glen Velez & Randy Crafton-kalimba).

________. CD. Rhythmcolor Exotica. Ellipsis Arts CD 4140. 1996: USA. (Jan Hagiwara-mbira).

Weather Report. CD. Weather Report. Columbia/Legacy CK-48824. 1971: USA. (Airto Moreira-kalimba).

Wedgle, Barry. CD. Kake. Wonderful World Records 1201-2. 1982: USA. (Collin Walcott-sanza).

Whelan, John. CD. Flirting with the Edge. Narada 45444. 1998: USA. (Samite Mulondo-kalimba).



Belafonte, Harry. Roots of Rhythm. 1989. Docurama NVG-9476 (DVD). (Marimbula).

Chiweshe, Stella Nekati. Music of the Spirits: The Mbira Music of Stella Chiweshe. 1989. Ron Hallis & Ophera Hallis (DVD). SPACE (Stella Nekati Chiweshe-Shona mbira).

Corea, Chic. The Ultimate Adventure: Live in Barcelona. 2007. Concord (DVD). (Ruben Dantas-kalimba).

Dzamwarira, Thomas. Mbira Matepe dza Mhondoro: A Healing Party. 1975. Pennsylvania State University (video). (Matepe).

Donner, Richard (director). Lethal Weapon 2. 1989. (Sampled lamellaphones in video soundtrack).

Earth, Wind & Fire.  Earth, Wind & Fire Live in Japan '90. 1990. Pioneer Artists PA- 98-582D (video). (Maurice SPACE SPACE White-kalimba).

________.  Earth, Wind & Fire Live. 1994. PolyGram Video 800 635 727-3 (video). (Maurice White-kalimba).

Gates, Jr., Henry Louis. Wonders of the African World: 3-The Slave Kingdoms. 1999. PBS B8103 (DVD). (Aprempensuah).

Gwenzi, Gwanzura. Mbira dza Vadzimu: Religion at the Family Level with Gwanzura Gwenzi. 1975. Pennsylvania State SPACEUniversity (video). (Shona mbira dza vadzimu).

Hadouk Trio. En Concert au Satellit Café. 2004. Naïve NV 802611 (DVD). (Loy Ehrlich-sanza).

Kwenda, Forward. Muridziro we Forward Kwenda: Advanced Mbira Tutorial. 1995. Dandemutande (video). (Shona mbira SPACE dza vadzimu).

Mashoko, Simon. Mbira: Njari-Karanga Songs in Christian Ceremonies with Simon Mashoko. 1975. Pennsylvania State SPACEUniversity (video). (Shona mbira).

Mbira dzeNharira. Rwendo Rwekure: The Journey of a Thousand Miles. 2001. ZMC ZMVD 03 (video). (Shona mbira).

Mude, Hakurotwi. Mbira dza Vadzimu: Urban and Rural Ceremonies. 1978. Pennsylvania State University (video). SPACE SPACE (Hakurotwi Mude-mbira dza vadzimu).

Mujuru, Ephat. Mbira: The Technique of the Mbira dza Vadzimu. 1975. Pennsylvania State University (video). (Ephat SPACE SPACE Mujuru-mbira dza vadzimu).

Mujuru, Muchatera and Ephat Mujuru. Mibra dza Vadzimu: Dambatsoko—An Old Cult Center with Muchatera and Ephat SPACE Mujuru. 1975. Pennsylvania State University (video). (Shona mbira).

Robinson, N. Scott. Hand Drumming: Exercises for Unifying Technique. 1996. Wright Hand Drum Company WHD-001 SPACE SPACE (video). (N. Scott Robinson-sanza).

Sandler, Patricia. The Mbira and the Music of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. 1994. Percussive Arts Society PAS9422 SPACE SPACE (video). (Patricia Sandler-mbira dza vadzimu).

Various Artists. Konkombe: The Nigerian Pop Music Scene. 1980. Shanachie (video). (Example of Nigerian lamellaphone).

________. Kalimba Demonstration Video. (no date given). African Musical Instruments (video).

________. The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance vol. 17-Middle East & Africa II: SPACE SPACE SPACE SPACE Egypt/Tunisia/Morocco/Mali/Cameroon/Zaire/Tanzania. 1988. JVC, Victor Company of Japan (video). (Example SPACE from Cameroon of the Fulhe People-sanza).

________. The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance vol. 19-Middle East & Africa IV: Ivory SPACE SPACE SPACE Coast/Botswana/Republic of South Africa.  1988. JVC, Victor Company of Japan (video). (Example from Botswana of SPACE the San Bushmen-lamellaphone).

________. Mbira Music: The Spirit of the People (The Spirit of Zimbabwe). 1990. Films for the Humanities & Sciences SPACE (video). (Various Shona, including Stella Rambisai Chiweshe, on various Shona mbira).

________. The JVC/Smithsonian Folkways Video Anthology of Music and Dance of Africa vol. 2: The SPACE SPACE SPACE SPACE Gambia/Liberia/Ghana/Nigeria.  1996. JVC, Victor Company of Japan (video). (Example of lamellaphone from SPACE Liberia).

________. Cuban Music: Musicos Legendarios de La Habana Vieja. 1999. Charles A. Becker/Maní (video). (Example of SPACE marímbula).

________. Congotronics 2: Buzz 'n' Rumble from the Urb 'n' Jungle. Crammed Discs CRAW 29 (DVD & CD). 2006: Belgium. SPACE (Various ensembles from Democratic Republic of Congo on acoustic & electrified likembes).

Wemba, Papa.  La ville est belle [Life is Rosy]. 1987. Lamy Films (video). (Papa Wemba-likembe).

Wesley, Bill and Patrick Hadley. The Array Mbira. 2004. Array Instruments (DVD). (Bill Wesley & Patrick Hadely-array SPACE mbira).

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