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"Frame Drums and Tambourines"


Technically, a frame drum is a drum that has a shell depth smaller than the diameter of the drumhead, which can be from 6" to 20" (15 cm to 50 cm) or more; in simple terms, it is a hoop with a skin stretched across it. Although the frame is most commonly round, it can be square or hexagonal; it is made from various woods, metals or clay, and has a single or double head. The drumhead of a frame drum is made either from an animal skin—cow (calf), goat, fish, lizard, deer, whale, seal, or snake—or from an animal's internal organs. The skin is attached to the frame with glue, tacks, or a counter-hoop system with tuning hardware (devices such as screws to tune the skin to a particular note or pitch by tightening or slackening its tension over the frame). Construction styles for most frame drums often vary from region to region. North American drum companies such as Cooperman and Remo have successfully made synthetic plastic skins and frames.

There are two major types of frame drum: those without jingles, which can be played with the hands or with sticks; and those with jingles, which are played with the hands (tambourines). Tambourine jingles are usually round metal discs set into the frame, but they can also be pellet bells or brass rings attached to the inside of the frame.

Frame drums are found in many cultures and have a long history. Examples of different types are depicted in pottery, reliefs, paintings and folk art. The earliest depictions of frame drums appear in Mesopotamian art from the third millennium BCE. These frame drums are much larger than those used in popular music of the late twentieth century. Depictions of smaller frame drums similar to some still used can be found in the artwork of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and India. They mainly show women playing frame drums in ritual, but men often appear in Arabic examples when a frame drum is employed for martial purposes. The first appearance of a frame drum with jingles attached to the frame is found on the 190 ADE Roman sarcophagus, The Triumph of Bacchus (in The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland, USA).

Grips and Technique

A consistent feature of the depictions of frame drums throughout their history has been the use of two main grips for holding the instrument. From the iconographical evidence Glen Velez gathered, the most common grip was what he called the "Oriental grip." The player is always shown with the left hand holding the instrument at the bottom with the skin facing away from him/her and the fingers of both hands playing. This grip allows the player to produce numerous sounds from the skin: for example, a low-pitched natural ringing sound produced by striking the drum off-center; a high-pitched sound produced by striking the edge; a stopped stroke produced by slapping the instrument in the center; various jingle sounds; brushing sounds produced by grazing the skin with the fingernails or fingertips; a drone produced by the friction of a moistened finger rubbed on the skin; and the sound produced by knocking the frame with the knuckles. In Arab drumming, the first three sounds mentioned above are onomatopoeically known as doum, tek, and kah. Persian drumming makes use of different strokes, employing snapping techniques for the high-pitched rim sounds. Indian drumming has similar names for drum strokes, as well as rhythmic solfege systems known as bols and solkattu (konnakol). The Indian technique has developed in such a way as to allow fast and clear repetitions of specific sounds, usually stopped sounds.

The other grip Glen Velez identified was the "European grip" based on a European iconography from the seventeenth century and his background as an orchestral percussionist. This grip seems to be reserved largely for specific tambourine playing, such as that used in African-American gospel, rock, European orchestral playing, and folk musics Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Mexico, and various Caribbean Islands. The player holds the instrument in the left hand so that the drumhead faces up toward the sky, with the thumb touching the skin; most of the playing is done with the right hand. Compared with the multiple skin sounds (and jingle sounds, if the instrument is equipped with jingles) that the "Oriental grip" permits, the "European grip" allows for a more jingle-based sound.

Terms for these two grips that more accurately reflect the multiple contexts that frame drums are found in among both historical and contemporary cultures would be "Traditional grip" and "New grip." The terms originally coined by Glen Velez in his early publications can be misleading in that few of the frame drums found in Europe are held in "European grip" with the exception of the orchestral tambourine (which has multiple playing positions). A term such as "Traditional grip" is suggested to be used in place of "Oriental grip" as it more accurately describes the holding positions of many frame drums with a culturally neutral terminology. A term such as "New grip" is suggested to be used in place of "European grip" as this grip is newer and found more often in the New World where it seems likely that Sub-Saharan African musicians had reoriented the tambourine so that the skin faces upward much in the way that most Sub-Saharan African drums are oriented.

The sitting position facilitates another playing grip commonly referred to today as "Lap style." The seated player holds the instrument on the left knee with the left hand resting on top; this allows for similar manipulations of the skin as with the "Oriental grip." This "Lap style" position becomes a necessity when the frame drum is too large for handheld playing.

Numerous grips are used for frame drums played with sticks, as for Native American frame drums, the Irish bodhrán, the tapou of Martinique & Guadeloupe, Ukrainian stick-beaten tambourines called buben, frame drums in Chinese opera (jing xi) called bangu and in the silk and bamboo music (jiangnan sizhu) of Shanghai called biqi gu, the Japanese paranku (Okinawa) and kacho (Ainu), and frame drums with handles attached, such as uchiwa daiko (daimoku daiko) from Japan, the sogo of the Republic of Korea (South Korea), and the North American kilaut (cauyuq) played by the Inuit. These grips constitute exceptions to the three already discussed. The hand-beaten frame drum of Brazil’s bumba meu boi rituals, the pandeirão, is also an exception.

Apache frame drums (SW USA)

Frame drum from British Columbia (NW coast)

Paranku from Okinawa, Japan

Uchiwa daiko (daimoku daiko) from Japan

Inuit kilaut (cauyuq)

Tuning the tapou of Martinique

Bangu from China

Lastly, a grip called "Free-hand position" was popularized by John Bergamo in the USA. The player holds a frame drum between the legs so that the skin slants away from him/her; this allows both hands to be used for playing. A similar style was used in New York in the early 1980s by electric tambourinist Peter "Akiva" Wharton, who damped the jingles and amplified the tambourine while playing with the tambourine resting on his lap. The free-hand grip is traditionally used for large frame drums in Cuba and in Turkey and pre-dates the popular spread of these playing positions among frame drummers in the USA.


The nomenclature for frame drums is problematic, as similar instruments have different spellings and names in different cultures, which demonstrates variations in regional preferences. In some cases, the term "tambourine" (with various spellings such as tamborens, tamberins, tambereen, and tamboruin) was used to describe frame drums without jingles (particularly those of various Native American tribes in the 1804-1805 writings of William Clark and John Ordway during the Lewis & Clark expedition). In addition, drum companies such as Remo have continued to market newly invented versions of frame drums simply as "frame drum." Other named inventions have included the Remo ocean drum (a double-head frame drum with metal shot inside), Glen Velez's Mediterr-Asian tambourines made by Cooperman some of which feature small tunable frame drums with wooden jingles, a one-piece all-wooden frame drum used by Glen Velez, a one-piece all-clay frame drum known as "claypan" made by the Wright Hand Drum Company, Barry Hall's ceramic "didjibodhrán" (a ceramic circular didjeridu with a skin stretched across making both a frame drum and didjeridu in a single instrument), and Carlo Rizzo's "polytimbral tambourine" (with which he can control the tension of the skin, damping of the jingles, and application of snares to the skin while playing).

12" ocean drum

22" Cooperman tunable bodhrán with synthetic skin

Frame Drums (Without Jingles)

Following are brief descriptions of the most common frame drums (without jingles) found in popular music.

The adufe (pandeiro quadrado, pandero cuadrado de Peñaparda) is a double-headed square frame drum, 12"-16" (30 cm-40 cm) in diameter, mainly played in Portugal, Spain, but also found in Egypt, Morocco, Guatemala, and Brazil. It can have pellet bells attached to the inside frame, and is held in the Traditional grip. The Egyptian version is quite old, dating back as far as 1400 BCE. The Brazilian version was stick-beaten and may have been a precursor to the tamborim (see below). The European versions are usually hand beaten and triangular shaped drums may also be found. The pandero cuadrado de Peñaparda is held on the lap while the right hand uses a stick to strike the frame and skin with the left hand playing the skin as well. It is only in the village of Peñaparda (in the province of Salamanca, in Castile and León, Spain) that the stick technique is used and those drums are slightly larger and deeper than the hand held pandeiro quadrado or Galician adufe. The hand-held pandeiro quadrado is thinner and held with a corner against the belly while beaten. The Galician adufe is often held flat against the chest and beaten with the fists of each hand.

Adufe from Galicia, Spain

The bendir (bendyr, bendire) of Morocco and Tunisia is similar to the tar (see below), with the addition of snares stretched across the inside of the skin so that the instrument produces a buzzing sound. This drum can range from 10"-16" (25 cm-40 cm) in diameter, and is held in the Traditional grip. Large variations can sometimes be found that include jingles in Morocco, which may be called tarr or târa (tar and bendir are often used interchangeably in Morocco for frame drums with or without snares).

Moroccan bendir

Traditionally used in Irish pub music, the bodhrán is 16"-20" (40 cm-50 cm) in diameter and is played with a double-ended stick known as a "tipper." Both traditional and innovative hand techniques also exist. Although the bodhrán can have jingles, it is a frame drum that is usually without jingles. This is probably because prior to 1950, tambourines were used in Irish folk music since the 1830s but died out by the mid-1900s. The switch to a frame drum without jingles may have to do with preferences in the recording studio at that time Irish traditional music began to be recorded. Many playing styles exist including the Kerry style (use of both ends of tipper), the Limerick style (use of a shorter, single-sided tipper), the Roscommon style (use of bare hand only), and the Top End style (from Northern Ireland, makes use of a larger variety of left hand dampening and accented sounds while playing with the a single end of the tipper on the skin towards the top of the drum).

Traditional Irish bodhrán with tipper

The gombe (gome) is a large square frame drum played by the Ashanti and Ga people in Ghana, usually 18" x 15" (45 cm x 38 cm). This drum is set on the ground with the player sitting down on the drum. The player reaches down between the legs to strike the goat skin to achieve open tones, slaps, and bass tones much in the way an Afro-Cuban conga drum is played with the exception that the gombe player uses the heels of the feet to press into the skin to change the pitch. This drum may be used in highlife music in place of a bass player (similar drums are played in Sierra Leone and by the Maroon people in Jamaica).

Gome from Ghana

The panderão and panderinho are frame drums used in the Brazilian bumba meu boi folk music in Maranhão and Amazonas. The pandeirão is a large frame drum of about 20" (50 cm) that is held in the left hand with the skin facing the player while it is beaten with the right hand. The panderinho is a smaller frame drum of about 12" (30 cm) that is held in the left hand with the skin facing up towards the sky while it is beaten with the right hand. These two frame drums traditionally play in a polyrhythmic texture along with wooden sticks and other percussion.

Panderão from Brazil

The Puerto Rican pandereta (also known as pandero) is usually in three sizes 10" (25 cm), 12" (30 cm), and 14" (35 cm) in diameter, has tuning hardware and a thick skin, and is used in traditional la plena music. The playing technique is similar to that for playing the congas, and the instrument is held in the Traditional grip.

Panderetas from Puerto Rico

The pandero is a large frame drum from Spain and Portugal, 16"-20" (40 cm-50 cm) in diameter. It can be played in the sitting position, or held in the Traditional grip if the frame depth is shallow enough. (Pandero and panderoa are also terms sometimes used for tambourines in Portugal).

The patenge is a rectangular frame drum that was used in an urban style of music in Zaïre (now Democratic Republic of Congo) known as maringa. The drum has two wooden legs and is played with the hands while seated resting back against the player. It resembles a rectangular and more shallow gombe drum and is played much in the same manner in terms of performance practice. A similar frame drum is found further down the Atlantic African coast known as malinga.

The rammana is a frame drum, 10" (25 cm) in diameter, used in the classical music of Thailand and Cambodia. It is often played simultaneously, either by the same player or another, with a clay or wooden goblet drum called a thon. The instruments are known collectively as thon-rammana. The thon lies on the player's lap and is played with the right hand, while the player holds the rammana in the Lap style position and plays it with the left hand. The playing technique involves low-pitched, rim, and stopped sounds similar to those used in Arab drumming, and snapping techniques similar to those of Persian drumming are used on the rammana (left in photo below).

Thai rammana & thon

The ravann (or ravanne) is a large frame drum, 20" (50 cm), held on the lap and played in sega music on the island of Mauritius (in Indian Ocean between Madagascar and Australia, south of Sri Lanka).

Ravanne of Mauritius

The samba drum is a rectangular frame drum from Nigeria usually 14" (30 cm) in diameter and was used along with tambourines in early forms of jùjú music. The Christian church introduced tambourines and Nigerian made versions (jùjú drum) may be square, octagonal, or hexagonal but they are often referred to as simply tambourines. Both drums were also used by street musicians and small ensembles of Yoruban palmwine and asìkó (ashiko) musicians. (Round clay stick-beaten frame drums without jingles called sakara, usually 12" (30 cm) or more, are also played in Nigeria and Liberia).

Nigerian sakara

The sogo is a small frame drum with a wooden handle played for rhythmic accents by dancers in samul nori in South Korea.

Sogo from South Korea

The tamalin is a large rectangular frame drum played in parts of Ghana in three sizes, usually 17" x 14" (42 cm x 35 cm), 19" x 16" (47 cm x 40 cm), and 24" x 19" (58 cm x 47 cm) in diameter. These drums are used by the Ashanti and Ga people in traditional ensembles as well as their urban music called highlife. Each drum has a cross piece in the back by which it is held (as in the Irish bodhrán) and the drum is played with the hand achieving open and closed sounds.

Tamalin from Ghana

Tamalins from Ghana

The Brazilian tamborim (tambourim) is a frame drum used for samba. It is 6"-8" (15 cm-20 cm) in diameter, and has a wooden or metal frame, with a plastic or skin head. The stick used to play the tamborim has a frayed tip that produces a thicker sound than a regular stick. Using the New grip, the player employs a technique that involves turning the hand holding the drum so that rhythms are produced on the skin as the drum rotates around the stick. The hand holding the instrument also damps the skin from underneath.

Brazilian tamborim

The parai (tape or dap or dapu) is a stick beaten frame drum found throughout India. Sizes vary from 11 inches in diameter to 18 inches. The shell depth ranges from 3 to 4 inches approximately and the shell can be made from wood, brass, steel, or aluminum. Traditionally, a goatskin was used but modern versions make use of plastic skins. The parai is used in traditional funeral music in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka as well as in some popular Tamil film music.

Parai (tape or dap) from southern India

The Egyptian tar—not to be confused with the tar used in Persian music, which is a lute—is a circular frame drum found in Arab music traditions throughout North Africa. It ranges from 12" to 16" (30 cm to 40 cm) in diameter, and is held in the Traditional grip (tar and bendir are often used interchangeably in Morocco for frame drums with or without snares).

North African tar (reconstruction)


Tambourines vary in size, shell, skin and jingle type, as well as in playing technique, and are usually circular (the Chinese octagonal snake-skin tambourine bafanggu [or bajiaogu, which is also the term for the ballad-chanting music in Beijing this tambourine is used in] is an exception).

Chinese bajiaogu (or bafangu)

The generic tambourine, used in popular and orchestral music of the West, is often held in the New grip. The playing technique involves shaking the frame to activate the jingles and striking the skin for accents. This approach seems to be focused on producing a jingle sound, with no exploration of the expressive possibilities of the skin. The playing techniques of African-American tambourinists are an exception: in gospel music and in vaudeville, the players rock the instrument from side to side while striking it with the thumb for low sounds and slapping it with the palm in the center for stopped sounds. The famous vaudeville tambourinist, "Juba" (William Henry Lane), performed in this style between 1840-1850. Both the Traditional and New grips can be found in these contexts.

What is most commonly called a tambourine in the context of popular music often does not have a skin and is technically neither a tambourine nor a frame drum. Its proper name is "jingle ring." The distinction between a tambourine and a jingle ring is rarely made and usually only by knowledgeable percussionists. Similar instruments are also common to India.

Jingle ring from USA

Orchestral tambourine


Vaudevillian Tambourine


Following are brief descriptions of tambourines found in popular music.

The bassé (bas, tanbourin) is a Haitian frame drum, 12"-16" (30 cm-40 cm) in diameter, that can be with or without jingles. Used traditionally in some rara and voodoo music, it is also sometimes played in Haitian popular music along with other traditional drums. Held by a cross-brace or rope-tension system at the back, the instrument is slapped for stopped and low sounds.

Haitian bas (no jingles) & lambi (conch shell trumpet)

The buben is a Ukrainian stick-beaten tambourine, which features a cord cross-brace on the inside frame from which various other jingles, such as pellet bells, are hung.

Ukrainian buben player with fiddler

The doira (or ghaval) is a tambourine played in Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Xinjian (China), Turkey, Uzbekistan (doyra), Iran (dayereh), and in parts of the former Soviet Union (doira). The preferred skin is fish but other skin types such as cow, goat, and horse are used, and the jingles are brass rings and/or pellet bells attached to the inside of the frame. The instrument is held in the Oriental grip, and the playing technique involves snapping the fingers against the rim for accented high-pitched sounds, as well as stroking the fingers toward the center to produce low ringing sounds as well as sharp sounding slap strokes (doyra). The frame can also be struck or shaken to activate the jingles. The rings of the ghaval or dayereh tend to be lighter than the heavier rings and much higher tuned (& thicker) skin of the Uzbek doyra with the rings of the Persian dayereh being the lightest.

Azerbaijani ghaval

Uzbek doyra

The term daf is used in Iran (Persia)/Kurdistan for a large drum that has a series of four interlinked rings in the frame where the ghaval (other terms for this drum are dayereh or dayré) has only a single ring. On the daf, the playing technique involves shaking the frame so that the rings strike the skin in conjunction with the player’s hand.

Daf from Iran

Although frame drums in India are numerous, there is one that has been incorporated into western popular music. The kanjira (also ganjira in Tamil and khanjira in Kannada), used in the Carnatic classical tradition in southern India, is a tambourine with a 6-7" (15 cm) lizard-skin head and one pair of coin jingles. The skin, held in the Traditional grip, is moistened so that it is loose enough for the player to bend the low sound by pressing into it with the holding hand. The playing technique involves double strokes and rotating the right hand so that two different sets of fingertips alternate on the playing surface. This technique allows fast, clear repetitions of the stopped sound along with a low sound produced by strokes of the index finger.

Kanjira from India

Kanjari is a term used in North India for tambourines used in folk music. Sometimes the term duffli or duff (and even kanjari) are used for the common Western tambourine as well as a small frame drum without jingles in Northern India.

Duffli from northern India

The Egyptian mazhar looks like a large riqq (see below). It is about 12"-14" (30 cm-35 cm) in diameter, has huge brass jingles and is very loud. The playing technique involves shaking the instrument and striking the skin for low and stopped sounds.

Egyptian mazhar

The pandeiro is a tambourine used in traditional Brazilian music, such as samba, choro, and capoeira, and in Brazilian pop music. It is 10"-12" (25 cm-30 cm) in diameter, with a plastic head or a skin head of goat, calf, or boa constrictor. The frame can be made of plastic, wood, or metal. The jingles are arranged in a single row in the frame with sometimes three per slot; the third jingle is usually flat and inserted in the middle and restricts jingle movement, which allows the skin articulations to be heard clearly. The New grip is used, and several playing techniques exist that involve the player damping and turning the drum from right to left with the holding hand while striking it with different parts of the playing hand, moving the instrument up and down to get jingle articulations while striking, a non-turning flat style, a continuously turning style, and playing on the edge of the skin with the fingers. The term pandeirola is used for a jingle ring in Brazil.

Brazilian pandeiro

The octoganol Mexican tambourine, the pandero, is usually 12"-14" in diameter, with a single row of jingles. Played in Veracruz, Mexico, it is used in an ensemble that performs music in the son jarocho tradition (fandango), a multicultural mix of Spanish, African, and indigenous influences. Since the 1990s, there have been many groups in California in the USA and southern Mexico playing a modern version of this music with electric instruments and cross-cultural performers including Conjunto Jardín (USA) and Chuchumbé (Mexico). A small heaxagonal pandero (6"-7") is also used in Chile (see recordings by the group Illapu and Héctor Pavéz).

Mexican pandero

Pandero used in Chile in the group Illapu

Pandero from Chile

The Spanish tambourine, the pandereta, is usually 10-13 inches (25 cm-30 cm) in diameter, with usually a staggered row of jingles, and is held in the Traditional grip but there are many variations in size and jingles. In Galicia (the northwestern corner of Spain), the technique involves holding the pandereta (also spelled pandeireta) in the right hand while often keeping the left hand stationary (but some players do hold with the left and play with the right). In this manner, the right hand moves the pandereta around the left hand to execute a variety of duple and triple rhythms. The thumb and middle finger of the left hand are also used to articulate rhythms across the surface of the skin and the instrument can also be shaken and beaten much in the way a common tambourine is played. In Basque Country, northern Spain (just left of the border with France), a technique used for playing the pandereta (also spelled panderoa) involves bouncing the tips of the middle and/or ring fingers across the skin in alternation with the thumb for duple rhythms with the right hand (if the instrument is held with the left but some players do hold with the left and play with the right). This panderoa is also played in the French Basque Country of southern France in Gascony. In Asturias, northern Spain just next to Galicia, and Cantabria (next to Basque Country), the pandereta is used in annual festivals of folk music. The pandereta from Asturias and Cantabria usually have smaller jingles than those found on pandereta in Basque Country and Galicia. In southern Spain there are two additional tambourine traditions. In Málaga, where the tambourine is called pandero, the tradition involves a very large tambourine (14-18 inches) with an excessive amount of jingles in a staggered triple row and different playing techniques. The pandero is used in ensembles called panda de Verdiales during annual festivities in late-December that feature Verdailes Flamenco music. In Seville, there is an old tradition of university student ensembles known as tuna that perform music and a dance in which a performer strikes a small pandereta while dancing. The tuna ensembles date back to the 1700s and are also found today in many parts of Latin America such as Mexico, Peru, Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia. The terms pandeiro and pandeireta may be used generically in either Spain or Portugal indicating tambourine. Basque terms for tambourine include panderoa and pandero. The Galician term is pandeireta and also pandera (with pandeira referring to a large tambourine). Pandereta is the common term for tambourine used in Asturias. Terminology can be confusing for non-natives. Different terms and spellings are often based on regional (and historical) differences, the size of a particular drum, and feminine vs. masculine language practice. Xabier Berazaluze, also known as "Leturia," is one of the most refined players of panderoa from the Basque Country in Spain and has been recording on the instrument since 1986 primarily with Tapia eta Leturia. Anerlis Gonzalez is pandereta player from Asturias who records with Xuacu Amieva. Alba Gutiérrez and Conchi Garcia are pandereta players from Cantabria. Rafael Barba is a pandero player in Málaga. Vanesa Muela is a pandereta player from Castile and León. Davide Salvado is a pandeireta and adfue player from Galicia.

Pandeireta from Galicia, Spain

Pandereta from Asturias, Spain

Panderoa from Basque Country, Spain

Basque Country panderoa player Xabier Berazaluze "Leturia"

Panderoa player in French Basque Country, Gascony, France

Vanesa Muela, pandereta player from Castile and León, Spain

Conchi Garcia, pandereta player from Cantabria, Spain

Pandero player from Málaga, Spain

Pandereta player in a tuna ensemble from Peru

Pandereta for a tuna ensemble from Seville, Spain

The riqq or deff (riq, duff), a tambourine played in many parts of the Arab Middle East, North Africa, Turkey (tef), and Israel, is 10" (25 cm) in diameter, with five double pairs of jingles set into a wooden or metal frame. The preferred skin is fish or plastic, but it can also be goat or calf. The instrument is used in both popular belly dance music and the Arab classical traditions. The Traditional grip is used, and the playing technique involves three basic skin sounds (doum, tek, pa), playing on the jingles with the fingers (the resultant sound can be called tik), shaking the frame, and striking the frame itself. The instrument can be played dramatically with a great deal of jingle strokes and shaking, or in a softer style in which no jingle strokes are used and the index fingers of both hands damp the skin while the middle and ring fingers of both hands alternate skin sounds.

Arab riqq

The tamburello, a southern and central Italian tambourine, is usually 10"-14" (25 cm-35 cm) in diameter, with tin-can jingles but there is a great variety in size and jingles. It is held in the Traditional grip. The playing technique, which involves mostly right-hand strokes, is demanding and is based on producing a triple stroke by means of a pivotal motion in the center of the skin that moves from the back of the thumb to the side of the hand to a full-hand slap. The left hand is used in some traditions to shake or turn the drums to activate the jingles (as in the Sicilian tradition). A variety of playing styles for tamburelli (plural) exist in the different regions of central and southern Italy including those found in Lazio, Campania (Salerno & Naples), Montemarano, Puglia, Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria, Marche, Basilicata, and Sicily. Terminology can be confusing for non-natives. Different terms and spellings are often based on regional practices and issues such as the size of a particular drum.

Tamburello for pizzica pizzica from Salento, southern Italy

(Pizzica pizzica is sometimes referred to as taranta)

A larger version of the tamburello, with a deeper frame, less jingles, and lower tuning, is called tammorra. This tambourine is typically 14"-18" (35 cm-45 cm) or more in diameter, is held in the Traditional grip, and requires a different technique, which involves bouncing the playing hand across the skin to produce duple rhythms. The tammorra is used for playing duple rhythms in the traditional folk music dance known as tammorriata (or tammuriata), which is found in Campania (particularly Naples). Tammorra muta is a tammorra without jingles but more of a modern development.

Tammorra for tammuriata from Naples, Campania, southern Italy

Tammorra muta from Campania, southern Italy

Tamburello from Sicily, southern Italy

Tamburello for saltarello from Lazio, central Italy


Tamburello from Marche, central Italy

Tamburello from Calabria, southern Italy

Tamburello player from Montemarano, southern Italy

The tamburo is another tambourine variant from southern Italy found in central and northern Puglia. It tends to be 12"-15" in diameter with a deeper shell and handle much like a tammorra with 4 sets of jingles arranged in overlapping double pairs at each position on the drum and typically pellet bells suspended across the back of the frame. The playing technique involves prodigious use of the left hand for turning (at times with a stationary right hand) as well as right hand techniques that are similar to those used in pizzica pizzica and saltarello tamburelli traditions.

Italian tamburo

Tamburello or palla tamburello is the name of a sport in Italy that is similar to tennis but with no net and small frame drums are used in place of rackets to bat a ball back and forth between two teams of five players each. This game is an old Italian tradition with thefirt tournaments being held in 1896. The rules for modern tamburello were established in 1920 with the Federazione Italiana Palla Tamburello being established in 1988. Several variations on the sport exist for play on the beach, with nets, and with three-player teams.

A game of palla tamburello

The frame drum bat and ball for the Italian sport of palla tamburello

The tambour di bass is a large tambourine played in Martinique of 20" (50 cm) in diameter. This tambourine is played in an ensemble along with two barrel drums, bamboo flute, shaker, a stick-beaten bamboo tube, singers, and dancers.

Terbang from Indonesia

The terbang is an Indonesian tambourine (known as rebana kercing in Malaysia) with four to five pairs of jingles and is usually 10"-12" (25 cm-30 cm) in diameter. Held in Traditional grip, the drum is played with the fingers utilizing the doum and slap-style sounds. The frame is made from wood and has a characteristic convex shape in the same manner as the Thai rammana, Malaysian frame drums (marwas, rebana besar, rebana ubi, kompang), and Mongolian frame drums. Coming to Indonesia via Islam, the terbang was used in older Central Javanese Islamic ritual music called terbangan and was rarely used in some Central Javanese gamelan ensembles and other parts of Indonesia. Rebana is also a term for a large frame drum (with or without jingles) in Indonesia played in Lombok and in Betawi rebana biang ensembles.

Rebana besar & rebana ubi from Malaysia

Kompang from Malaysia

Singapore Hadrah and Kompang Association

Malay kompang players in Singapore

Rebana from Indonesia

Rebana player from Indonesia

Frame Drums in Popular Music

Frame drums in popular music is perhaps too broad a category to cover in a single entry given the diverse musics of Egypt, India, Brazil, Africa, USA, Native America, and Europe as there is not always a binding common thread that unites these instruments and musics in a single category. For this reason, more ethnic musics that may be included within the popular realm, such as Irish or Brazilian, will not be detailed here. Instead, popular music of the West will be the focus to bring attention to the more recent innovations in frame drum playing and their subsequent adoption by many percussionists in the 1980s-2000s.

Tambourine made by Tebaldo Monzani, ca. 1800, England

Between 1780-1840, the tambourine was popular briefly in the salon music of England and even had locally based composers and tambourine builders, such as organist Joseph Dale, Sr. (1750-1821) along with his son Joseph Dale, Jr., Thomas Bolton, the German Daniel Gottlieb Steibelt (1765-1823), and the Italian builder/composer Tebaldo Monzani, and composers G.P. Salner, Arthur Betts, Giacomo Ferrari, Joseph Mazzinghi, and Muzio Clementi. The music these composers wrote for tambourine involved a graphic notation that called for highly specialized techniques with up to 30 different strokes (some for show) that involved different types of rubbing (bafs), twirling, and striking. Dale composed eight waltzes that included this specialized tambourine playing as well as The Favorite Grand Sonata, for Piano Forte and Tambourine, with Accompaniments for a Flute, Violin and Bass, Opus 18 (1800). Tambourines in England at this time had a thumbhole spinner that allowed the drum to spin freely around the thumb of the holding hand, an effect called for in the notation.

Although the tambourine does appear in European art music literature before the compositions mentioned above (Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck's opera Echo et Narcisse, 1779, André-Modeste Grétry's opera La Caravane du Caire, 1783 & Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Six German Dances, K. 571, 1787), the specialized techniques en vogue in England were not called for in those compositions and the tambourine's use in them is most likely due to the influence of martial music.

Minstrel tambourine made in USA, 1858

In the USA, it was with the rise of the minstrelsy (and later vaudeville) performers that the tambourine experienced an innovation in playing techniques and a rise in popularity as the primary minstrel rhythm instrument. By the 1840s, an African-American tambourinist known as Juba (William Henry Lane) was said, by Charles Dickens, to astound audiences with a highly stylized way of playing that included the ability to mimic the sounds of trains and other mechanical devices (holding the tambourine in the Traditional grip). Breaking the color barrier by performing for White audiences, he toured the USA with a group called the Ethiopian Serenaders in 1843 ending up in London in 1848. By 1929, recordings featuring an African American tambourine style were made by Paramount Records, featuring tambourinist Uaroy Graves of the Mississippi Jook Band playing a variety of gospel and blues songs. More contemporary African American tambourinists from New Orleans include Sister Gertrude Morgan and Rosalie "Lady Tambourine" Washington (both performers using the New grip).

The distinctive African American technique, however, remained exclusive to gospel music. During the post-World War II era, the Salvation Army adopted the tambourine for its efforts. Preferring the biblical term, "timbrel," the Salvation Army’s use of the tambourine did not involve an innovative playing technique; rather, it was a symbolic and militaristic use in the style of a marching band. Routines for large ensembles of timbrel players were choreographed for visual appeal. Two editions of a manual for timbrel were published between 1955 and 1960 that detail such routines involving formation marching into various shapes with ensemble movement of timbrels to various positions. Such routines were part of the Salvation Army’s efforts through the 1960s.

With the free jazz movement from the late-1950s-1960s, psychedelic rock music of the 1960s, and jazz fusion during the 1970s, ethnic influences on popular music began a steady stream of influence culminating in the 1980s and 1990s with the popularization and commercial packaging of "world music." The term is often used generically for traditional ethnic musics, rock/pop music with ethnic influences, creative-like new age offerings, and an off-shoot of jazz fusion involving multi-ethnic influences with a jazz aesthetic. It is within this jazz context that a new innovation and subsequent rise in popularity of frame drums occurred, influencing western percussionists to learn non-western instruments. The first recording of a jazz inspired world music fusion involving frame drums was in 1958 by Ahmed Abdul-Malik called Jazz Sahara. Along with American jazz saxophonist Johnny Griffin, this recording features jazz musicians playing with North African Arabic musicians and features the riqq throughout in a typically traditional style. The recording in 1967 by George Grunz, Noon in Tunisia: Jazz Meets Arabia, along with several other European and American jazz musicians, features traditional Bedouin musicians from Tunisia and the bendir prominently. A subsequent hour-long performance film of the same title was also released in Germany in 1969 but with the added feature of trumpeter Don Cherry. The bendir players on these recordings performed in a traditional manner in a non-traditional setting; jazz.

Use of native frame drums and players on jazz recordings was not that common but there are several recordings that provide an historical continuum up to the major innovations in the 1980s. For example, in 1971 Native American jazz saxophonist Jim Pepper, along with his father Gilbert Pepper, featured Native American frame drums on several tracks of his recording Pepper’s Powwow. To continue, the addition of Brazilian percussionist, Airto Moreira to high profile jazz artists like Miles Davis in 1969-70, Weather Report in 1971, and Return to Forever in 1972 began featuring traditional percussion instruments of Brazil within this new jazz context. Brazilians Dom um Romão and Paulinho da Costa, along with Airto Moreira (who became known for wild pandeiro solos), began to feature the Brazilian frame drums, pandeiro and tamborim, on their jazz inspired solo recordings through the 1970s. Again, these frame drums outlined here were played very much as they would be in traditional settings as far as technique and rhythm patterns go. Another example within the jazz context would be Natural Elements by the group Shakti in 1977 as master percussionist of India T.H. "Vikku" Vinayakram (sometimes spelled "Vinayakaram") performs on kanjira alongside jazz guitarist John McLaughlin. Jazz inspired recordings throughout the 1970s that featured frame drums did so mainly with native players of respective traditions performing much in the same way they would within traditional contexts, which was a restriction that led to frame drum use only where native rhythmic patterns were compatible within the jazz context. Collin Walcott, on the Paul Winter Consort’s Road in 1970, is most likely the first western percussionist to use a foreign frame drum technique on a jazz recording, the buben (Ukraine-style sick-beaten tambourine), while Diga in 1976, by the multi-cultural percussion group Diga Rhythm Band, features Zakir Hussain of India on the Egyptian tar, making these last two examples notable exceptions. Other exceptions would be Afro-American tambourinist Joe Habad Texidor, who performs on several recordings by jazz virtuoso Rahsaan Roland Kirk (Volunteered Slavery in 1969) in a style not typical of Afro-American musics featuring tambourine, and Afro-American jazz percussionist Don Moye, who used the bendir on his 1975 improvisatory solo recording Sun Percussion Volume One.

Bruce Langhorne, folk-rock singer-songwriter in NY scene, 1965

In the New York City folk-rock/singer-songwriter scene of the early-1960s, Bruce Langhorne was a session musician who played a large Turkish frame drum with pellet bells around the interior (credited on recordings as simply "tambourine") on several recordings by Richard & Mimi Fariña, Bob Dylan, and others. Langhorne was not schooled in the technique of playing frame drum and developed his own way of striking the drum and obtaining timbres used in his work as a session musician. Angus MacLise was another New York-based percussionist that worked with the earliest version of The Velvet Underground and used to some degree frame drums in his work. A more traditional frame drummer that played with rock musicians in the 1970s was the great Nubian musician Hamza El Din, who played tar with The Grateful Dead and others on numerous occasions.

Glen Velez with frame drums & brushes set-up

The use of frame drums in popular music during the 1980s blossomed into an innovative renaissance largely as a result of the work of frame drum virtuoso Glen Velez. A type of new percussionist, the innovation in the work of Velez centers around detailed studies of unrelated frame drum techniques, such as Egyptian riqq and tar, Azerbaijani ghaval, Moroccan bendir, South Indian kanjira, Brazilian pandeiro, and southern Italian tamburello, with subsequent application of these techniques as a composite performance technique to drums such as Irish bodhrán (with bare hands or drumset brush and hand), Thai thon-rammana, Native American frame drums, Spanish adufe, as well as to the riqq, tar, ghaval, bendir, kanjira, pandeiro, and tamburello. This approach was successful because nearly all frame drums have a similar basic physical construction that allows for the transposition of techniques and ideas resulting in a unified sonic possibility (such as three onomatopoetic sounds from Middle Eastern drumming—used in the West as doum, tak, and kah/pa). The only criterion for this unified approach to frame drumming is that the skin be thin enough to respond to the various hand techniques (stick-beaten frame drums usually have thicker skins and are not always the best choice for the application of hand-drumming techniques). Later in his career, Velez had also pioneered the use of brushes in conjunction with hand drumming and drumset techniques and has even devised a drumset-like set up of frame drums in which a tar is held in the freehand grip between the legs while a kanjira and tamborim are mounted on a stand with a ride cymbal. With the addition of a maraca on his foot and brushes, the range of sounds he can produce is quite expansive (see recordings by Trio Globo). The early work of Velez demonstrates his innovative approach in recordings by Horizontal Vertical Band (duo with Charlie Morrow) in 1980-1981, Manzanita in 1981, and with Paul Winter in 1983. Velez’s first solo recording Handance in 1984 shows a refinement in his unified technique, which continued to develop both in breadth and depth throughout his recorded work in the 1990s.

The unified approach to frame drumming by Velez had a resultant impact on western popular music in two ways. First, his stylized approach created interest in many other percussionists causing the Velez approach to playing in a unified manner to spread amongst his students resulting in more performers of this style in the New York area (Mark Nauseef, Layne Redmond, N. Scott Robinson, Jan Hagiwara, Eva Atsalis, Randy Crafton, Yousif Sheronick, and Shane Shanahan are all proficient frame drum specialists with recording careers). Second, the Velez unified and improvisational approach freed the frame drum in western music from a reliance on compatibility of traditional rhythmic patterns, which subsequently made the kinds of musics they could be used in go beyond the jazz context (see recordings featuring Glen Velez by Rabih Abou-Khalil, Kimberly Bass, Malcolm Dalglish, Horizontal Vertical Band, Patty Larkin, Manzanita, Mokave, New York’s Ensemble for Early Music, Pilgrimage, Steve Reich, Akira Satake, Richard Stolzman, Trio Globo, Suzanne Vega, and Paul Winter).

Another innovator during the latter 1980s, is multi-percussionist John Bergamo. Located on the American west coast at California Institute of the Arts (a music school with diverse world music opportunities), Bergamo began applying North Indian tabla and South Indian kanjira and thavil techniques as well as conga, dumbeck, and other drumming techniques to generic tambourines and frame drums as well as the bodhrán, developing his own unified approach to frame drumming. Differing widely from the Velez School, Bergamo developed a grip where large frame drums were held between the legs so that both hands were free for playing. His approach also explored the sonic possibilities of frame drums in new ways, such as obtaining harmonic pitch bends with a sweeping of the hands upwards across the skin and rubbing superball mallets on the skin for increased sustain and harmonics. Bergamo did not limit his unified approach to drumming to frame drums and explored possibilities with African and Indonesian hand drums as well as suspended Indonesian nipple gongs and found objects, such as metal pots and jars of water, all played with the hands. Being a leading instructor at a prestigious music school, Bergamo was successful at creating his own pool of students that went on to professional careers (Mark Nauseef, Rich Goodhart, Austin Wrinkle, Andrew Grueschow, Peter Fagiola, and most notably Randy Gloss who remains a highly innovative frame drummer). His impact on popular music as a recording artist with frame drums is more restricted to highly creative styles of music (see recordings by Bracha, Mokave, Repercussion Unit, and Hands On’semble). In the 1990s, another contemporary American percussionist, Jamey Haddad, began teaching his own unique style of frame drumming producing a third frame drum "school" of playing and a pool of highly proficient performers (such as Matt Kilmer). This process of newer generations developing more refined frame drum schools is ongoing (most notably in the work of the Israeli percussionist Zohar Fresco and the German percussionist David Kuckhermann, among others).

Carlo Rizzo & polytimbral tambourine

Melodic tambourine (copy of Rizzo's polytimbral tambourine) by Guillaume Toutain

Melodic tambourine by Guillaume Toutain

By the late-1980s in Europe, Italian tambourinist Alfio Antico had developed numerous new techniques for tamburello and tammorra for non-traditional playing. Many of the modern virtuoso performers in Italy of tamburello have studied with Antico and employ his techniques as well as having developed some of their own. The Italian virtuoso Carlo Rizzo developed a unique and highly individual unified approach to tambourine playing with a synthesis of Italian, Persian, and Indian drumming techniques. By engineering his own "polytimbral tambourine," Rizzo could control the tension of the skin, application of snares, and dampening of jingles making his instrumental solos sound distinctly like tamburello, tammorra, kanjira, bendir, dumbeck, or a snare drum within a single performance. Residing in France, he recorded with a host of diverse European artists (Luc Ferrari, Michael Riessler, André Velter, Justin Vali Trio, Valentin Clastrier, Antonio Placer, and Rita Marcotulli) throughout the 1990s before his first solo recording Schérzo "Orientale" was released in 1997. Arnaldo Vacca and Andrea Piccioni are examples of the younger generation of performers who have built upon their studies with Alfio Antico and developed their own innovations. Many of the younger contemporary performers have mastered all of the regional tamburello and tammorra styles and have invented new versions of the tamburello with new techniques including a quadruple stroke with a single hand motion (see recordings by Indaco & Xicrò).

In Brazil in the 1950s and 1960s, Jackson do Pandeiro [whose real name was José Gomes Filho] was a popular artist known for singing in a variety of styles and his pandeiro playing but it was in the 1990s that the pandeiro experienced a liberating renaissance as a result of the work of percussionist Marcos Suzano (particularly in his work with the group Aquarela Carioca). Taking a technique initially developed by Jorginho Silva and Celsinho Silva, Suzano played in a style that seemed to combine Brazilian, Indian, and drumset techniques/rhythms in a way as to sound like pandeiro, kanjira, and funk drumset during performance by employing a constant sixteenth-note shaken subdivision with the left hand (pandeiro holding hand). This technique was actually revived by Suzano not invented by him but the younger generations of pandeiro players use it almost exclusively to play non-Brazilian music (such as funk). Residing in Brazil, he recorded with many artists local to Brazil and the USA (Hendrik Meurkens, Maria Bethania, Joan Baez, Ana Gabriel, Ashley Cleveland, Gilberto Gil, Marisa Monte, Boca Livre, Joyce, Carlinhos Brown, and Carlos Malta). In 1996, his solo recording Sambatown was released.

In the 1990s, several percussionists from South India had developed newer playing styles for the kanjira outside of Carnatic music. With the death of one of the most proficient kanjira players in India in 2002, G. Harishankar, younger players such as N. Ganeshkumar and T.V. Selvaganesh became known for playing the instrument outside of classical music and India in the 1990s (along with Trichy Sankaran in Canada). These musicians developed rhythmic styles on the kanjira that mimicked typical funk rhythms of the drumset and drew somewhat on the rhythmic and technical complexity of G. Harishankar's earlier innovations. While both had performed and recorded with fusion groups in India, Ganeshkumar recorded with Béla Fleck and the Flecktones (Little Worlds—2003) and John Wubbenhurst (Facing Beloved—2003) while Selvaganesh recorded with Remember Shakti (The Believer—1999 and Saturday Night in Bombay—2000) and Jonas Hellborg (Good People in Times of Evil—2000). Kanjira artists within India that continued in the much deeper and more complex playing style of G. Harishankar since 2000 include B. Shreesundarkumar in Chennai, N. Amrit in Bangalore, and Nerkunam Sankar in Chennai who have played together in a unique kanjira trio. In 2001, Ganesh Anandan, a South Indian percussionist who lived in Canada, developed a frame drum kit that involved multiple frame drums bolted on top of each other and played as a single instrument. Anandan's technique involved kneeling in between two sets of multiple frame drums bolted on top one another on either side of him while employing both traditional and non-traditional strokes such as use of the thumb, scrapes with the fingernails, and striking the back of the wooden shells with thin sticks (featured on the GaPa 2003 CD Imaginaria).

Daf player Houman Pourmehdi is known for using the traditional Iranian tambourine in new musical contexts. After arriving in Chicago in 1988, he later relocated to California where he founded the Liän Ensemble for playing traditional Persian music as well as a fusion of Persian, Hindustani, and creative contemporary music. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Pourmehdi has performed and recorded with Ishmael Wadada Leo Smith, John Bergamo, Hands On'semble, David Johnson, and Rajeev Taranath, among others.

Following its use in Irish folk music in Kerry, the bodhrán started being used more in the late-1950s after it was featured in a Dublin theater production of Sive by John B. Keane in 1959. Later bodhrán players in Ireland expanded the technical possibilities of their instrument. Leading innovators have developed pitch-bending techniques with the left hand since the 1970s. Perhaps the best known of these inventive players is John Joe Kelly of the group Flook. Other innovators include Tommy Hayes, who bends the pitch of the bodhrán by pressing the left hand fingers against the skin. Rónán Ó’Snodaigh developed a technique in the 1990s in which the left hand places a 6-inch piece of steel pipe against the skin to achieve tabla-like pitch bends. Brian Fleming, who regularly uses the steel pipe pitch bending technique, also sometimes uses a drumset brush in his right hand in place of the traditional tipper to achieve helicopter-like effects (many leading bodhrán players are featured on the double compilation CD Pure Bodhrán: The Definitive Collection-1927/2000).

Faltriqueira—One of the Galician pandereteira ensembles

In Spain, both Basque panderoa and Galician pandeireta players worked with groups that combined traditional instruments with electric instrumentation and crossover musical styles. The Basque group Oskorri has been recording since 1976 and features Natxo de Felipe on the Basque tambourine known as panderoa. In Galicia, a revival of pandeireta playing and singing began in the early-1990s when the Spanish government started to fund schools for learning traditional music. Currently, the movement has developed to feature all-female groups such as Leilía and Faltriqueira who perform traditional music with some new twists (polyphonic vocals). Perhaps the best-known and most experimental Galician pandeireta player is Mercedes Peón, who mixes many musical styles and electronic effects in her music. Eliseo Parra is a singer and player of pandereta who performs a blend modern popular music with folk styles from all over Spain. Recordings of his music have been released since 1984.

Steve Amedée with The Subdudes

In rock music, some percussionists specialized in the use of frame drums. Jack Ashford was the percussionist with the Motown label’s premier soul backing group known as The Funk Brothers (featured in the DVD Standing in the Shadows of Motown—2002). Ashford played a common tambourine on many of the Motown hits from 1959 to 1972 and continued recording with many artists. Since the late 1960s, English studio percussionist Ray Cooper has performed on tambourine with rock artists such as The Who, George Harrison, Elton John, and Eric Clapton, among others (featured in a special duet with Elton John in the video To Russia With Elton—1979). During tours in the 1980s, Phil Collins, the drumset player and singer from the pop group Genesis, frequently performed short features with a common tambourine as part of an elaborate stage show. The innovative Steve Amedée (often spelled Amadee) of the New Orleans group The Subdudes (also with the trio known as The Dudes) plays a modified 11-inch plastic-headed Cosmic Percussion brand tambourine made by Latin Percussion and plays it with a single modified brush/stick called Blastick made by Calato-Regal Tip. His technique also involves close proximity of a microphone, and he is able to fully support an entire acoustic ensemble in place of a drumset player with snare drum and bass drum types of sounds and pitch bends (Lucky by The Subdudes—1991 and his instructional video The Amedée Way). Irish percussionist Jim Sutherland played bodhrán with Jimmy Page and Robert Plant in 1994 (featured on the DVD No Quarter: Unledded) while English percussionist Terl Bryant plays a specially built synthetic tunable bodhrán and other frame drums having worked with John Paul Jones, Robin Mark, and Peter Murphy, among others. Pete Lockett is another English percussionist who works creatively with frame drums in a variety of popular music styles.

Lastly, unique festivals exclusively for frame drumming have been occurring annually in the 2000s as the result of several frame drum organizations that hold workshops on every type of frame drumming and feature concerts of both traditional and modern frame drummers. The first of these contemporary organizations was Frame Drums Europe, organized by the Italian artist and frame drummer Gianluca Baldo, who held the annual European Frame Drummers Meeting in the early 2000s in Spain on three occasions. A second organization, Caravansary, organized by Lennie Charles, held annual frame drum festivals in England from 2005-2008. Another organization, Tamburi Mundi, organized by Turkish percussionist Murat Coskun, has been holding annual frame drum festivals in Germany since 2006 and they have held regional smaller events in Germany, Iran, Italy, and Turkey. The Greek Frame Drums Meeting, organized by Gerasimos Siasos, held its first event in 2008 in Greece while the annual Festa da Pandeira in Spain, organized by Juanjo Fernández since 2005, held its 5th event in 2010. The North American Frame Drum Association, Inc. began holding regional events around the USA (in New Jersey, Vermont, Missouri, California, and Georgia) and Canada (Ontario) since 2008, organized by N. Scott Robinson, among others. In 2010, a new organization, Frame Drums Italia organized by Andrea Piccioni, held its first event preceded by other Italian organizations/festivals including the Società Italiana Tamburi a Cornice, led by Paolo Cimmino, that has held the annual Meeting Italiano del Tamburello since 2007. Other associations for frame drumming include the Japan Frame Drum Association and the National Percussion & Frame Drum Association in Taiwan. With the growth and popularity of online social networks, such as MySpace (since 2006) and Facebook (since 2008), numerous social networking frame drum groups have formed of every type all over the world.


By a new kind of western percussionist approaching frame drums as a single family of instruments, it has become common to mix the playing techniques, grips, and ideas associated with each instrument to create a unified composite vocabulary that can be used on almost any frame drum as its playing technique. Since this approach operates mostly outside of each instrument’s respective cultural tradition, innovative use of frame drums in western popular music continues alongside traditional frame drum use in various regional ethnic musics. Although modern frame drumming in Western music contexts remains a small culture, it shows signs of a continued growth and expansion while the traditions modern frame drummers draw upon remain strong in the respective cultural contexts of traditional areas, most notably Iran, the Middle East & North Africa (in both Arab & Jewish musics), Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, southern India, Brazil, southern Mexico, Puerto Rico, northern Spain & Portugal, southern Italy, Turkey, Ireland, and Malaysia.

[An edited and older version of this article was published as "Bodhrán" and "Frame Drums and Tambourines" in Continuum SPACE SPACE Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 2: Performance and Production. Edited by John Shepherd, David SPACE Horn, Dave Laing, Paul Oliver, and Peter Wicke. New York: Continuum, 2003, 349-350, 362-372].



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da Fonseca, Duduka and Bob Weiner. Brazilian Rhythms for Drumset. Miami: Manhattan Music, 1991.

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Dale, Sr., Joseph (with tambourine parts by Joseph Dale, Jr.). The Favorite Grand Sonata, for the Piano Forte and Tambourine, SPACE with Accompaniments for a Flute, Violin and Bass, Opus 18. London: Joseph Dale, 1800.

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________. The Bodhran: An Irish Drum—Advanced. Robert Daly, 2008.

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________. Musical Instruments in Sculpture in Karnataka. Shimlai: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1989.

________. Musical Instruments. New Delhi: National Book Trust, 1999.

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________. "Layne Redmond: Chasing the Frame Drum Through History." Drum! 7, no. 1 (February/March 1998), 78-79, 81-82, SPACE 84.

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________. "The Frame Drum in the Middle East: Women, Musical Instruments, and Power." In Ethnomusicology: A SPACE SPACE SPACE Contemporary Reader. Edited by Jennifer C. Post. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Driver, Nicholas. Nicholas Driver's Bodhrán & Bones Tutor. Crawley: Gremlin Musical Instrument Company, 1988.

Durga, S.A.K. "Frame Drums and Pot Drums in World Musics with Special Reference to Khanjari and Ghatam." In Talavadya SPACE SPACE Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore K. Venkataram. Bangalore: Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 35-39.

El-Dabh, Halim. Hindi-yaat No. 1. New York: C.F. Peters, 1965.

________. Tabla-tahmeel No. 1. New York: C.F. Peters, 1965.

Emsheimer, Ernst. "On the Symbolism of the Lapp Magic Drum." The World of Music 19, no. 3/4 (1977): 45-61.

Euba, Akin. "Jùjú, Fújì, and the Intercultural Aspects of Modern Yoruba Popular Music." In Essays on Music in Africa Volume 2SPACE Lagos, Nigeria: Elekoto Music Center, 1989, 1-30.

Fagiola, Peter. "A Discussion of Frame Drums." Percussive Notes 35, no. 6 (1997): 30-33.

________.  Frame Drumming: Free Hand Style. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Publishing, 1999.

Faleiros, Gustavo. "Marcos Suzano: O Electrônico-Raiz." Batera & Percassão 4, no. 35 (July 2000), 12.

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Faue, Michael. A Guide to Pandeiro. Los Angeles: Hit This Music, 2005.

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Goltheim, Vivien I. "Bumba-meu-boi: A Musical Play from Maranhão." The World of Music 30, no. 2 (1988): 40-68.

Gonçalves, Guilherme and Mestre Odilon Costa. O batuque Carioca: as baterias das escolas de samba do Rio de Janeiro—SPACE SPACE aprendendo a tocar (The Carioca Groove: The Rio de Janeiro's Samba Schools—Learning How to Play). Rio de Janeiro: SPACE Groove, 2000.

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Gottlieb, Gordon. "The Percussion of Carnaval." Modern Percussionist 1, no. 1 (1984/1985), 12-17, 46-47.

Gould, Michael. "Taiko Classification and Manufacturing." Percussive Notes 36, no. 3 (1998): 12-14, 16-20.

Graham, Richard. "Glen Velez's Tambourines." Modern Percussionist 2, no. 1 (1985/1986), 48-50.

________. "Trans-Atlantic African Organology: The Tradition of Renewal." Experimental Musical Instruments 8, no. 1 (1992): SPACE 29-35.

Graham, Richard and N. Scott Robinson. "The Tamborim: Little Drum with a Big Sound." LP Highlights in Percussion 4, no. 1 SPACE SPACE (1989), 11, 14.

Gregory, Jonathan Alexander Araujo. A Comprehensive Guide to Brazilian Pandeiro. Denton, TX: Jonathan Alexander Araujo SPACE SGregory, 2005.

________. "<Simbora>." Rio de Janeiro: Jonathan Gregory Percussion, 2006. (Score for pandeiro duo).

Grover, Neil W. "Creative Tambourine Technique." Percussive Notes 30, no. 6 (August 1992): 18-21.

Grover, Neil and Garwood Whaley. The Art of Tambourine and Triangle Playing. Fort Lauderdale: Meredith Music Publications, SPACE 1997.

Guizzi, Febo. "The Continuity of the Pictorial Representation of a Folk Instrument's Playing Technique: The Iconography of the SPACE Tamburello in Italy." The World of Music 30, no. 3 (1988): 28-58.

Guizzi, Febo and Nico Staiti. Le forme dei suoni: l'iconografia del tamburello in Italia. Firenze, Italy: Comunità Montana zona 'E', SPACE 1989.

Habibi, Masoud. Shiveye Novine Daf Navazi: The New Method for Playing Daf: First Volume. Tehran: Chang Publications, 2000.

________. Shiveye Novine Daf Navazi: The New Method for Playing the Daf: Second Book. Tehran: Chang Publications, 2002.

Haddad, Jamey. "Frame Drumming and Bringing Yourself to It." Crafton Percussion Works (1996 catalog), 6.

Hagoel, Kobi. The Art of Middle Eastern Rhythm. Kfar Sava, Israel: Or-Tav Music Publications, 2003.

Halpenny, Sean D. and Malachy Kearns. Secrets of the Bodhran and How to Play It. Galway, Ireland: Roundstone Connemara, 1960.

Hannigan, Steáfán. The Bodhrán Book. Cork: Ossian, 1991.

________. Bodhrán Basics. Cork: Ossian, 1994.

Hardgrave, Jr., Robert L. and Stephen M. Slawek. Musical Instruments of North India: Eighteenth Century Portraits by Baltazard SPACE Solvyns. New Delhi: Manohar, 1997.

Hart, William S. "Tambourine Technique." The Instrumentalist 17 (June 1963), 56.

Horton, Christian Dowu Jayeola. "The Role of the Gumbe in Popular Music and Dance Styles in Sierra Leone." In Turn Up the SPACE SPACE Volume! A Celebration of African Music. Edited by Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje. Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of SPACE SPACE Cultural History, 1999, 230-235.

Houston, Bob. "The Development of the Orchestral Percussion Section (c. 1675-1890)." Percussioner International 1, no. 4 SPACE SPACE (1987), 44-48.

Humphires, Jim. "Making Bodhráns in Ardnaculla." Treoir 8, no. 1 (1976).

Ikromov, Ilhom. Doyra Darsligi (Lesson of Doyra). Tashkent, Uzbekistan: Gafur Gulom nomidagi Adabiet va Sanat Nashrieti, 1997.

Isakov, Tolkin. Modern Methods of Doyra Playing.

________. "Two Lappers" (percussion score with doyra).

Jackson, Donald Dean. Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents, 1783-1854 (2 volumes). Chicago: SPACE SPACE University of Illinois Press, 2nd edition, 1979.

Johnson, Tom. "The Real Tambourine Man: Glen Velez." The Village Voice 26 (11 March 1981), 70.

Kampmann, Wolf. "Mister Tambourine Man: Der Perkussionist Carlo Rizzo." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 6 (November/December SPACE 1996), 34-36.

Keane, John B. The Bodhrán Makers. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1992.

Kearns, Malachy. Wallup! Galway, Ireland: Roundstone Connemara, 1996.

Kettle, Rupert. "Tambourines." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 1987. (Score for solo tambourines).

________. "Tambourines No. 2." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 1993. (Score for tambourine).

Khodjandi, Hamid Reza. Amoozeshe Daf Navazi: Contemporary Teaching Method of Playing Daf. Tehran: Chang Publications, (no SPACE date given).

Kirk, Alan. "Frame Drums and Rhythmic Spirituality in North America." M.A. thesis, University of California-Santa Barbara, 2005.

Kjeldsen, Svend. "The Coleman Handstrikers: Old Style Bodhrán Playing in South Sligo." M.A. thesis, University of Limerick, 2000.

________. "Bodhrán: Den irske rammetromme i historisk perspektiv." Folk & Musik no. 4 (2003): 12-18.

________. "Bodhrán: Kontemporære spilleteknikker og instrumenter." Folk & Musik no. 5 (2003): 13-22.

Klöwer, Töm. The Joy of Drumming: Drums and Percussion Instruments from Around the World. Diever, Holland: Binkey Kok SPACE Publications, 2004.

Kuckhermann, David. "Persian Techniques on Hand Drums." Percussive Notes 5, no. 5 (October 2007): 70.

Kujahn, Lars Bo. Oriental Percussion. Frederiksberg, Denmark: Percussion Center Publications, 1990.

Kumaracharya, V.S. Sampath. "Prominent Past and Present Ghata and Khanjari Vidwans and Their Contribution to Art (with SPACE SPACE Special Reference to Laya Vidwans of Mysore)." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore K. Venkataram. Bangalore: SPACE Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 40-47.

Lacerda, Vina. Pandeirada Brasileira. Brazil, 2008.

Lang, Morris. "The Tambourine." Percussioner International 1, no. 2 (1986), 60-61.

Lange, Moritz Wulf. Handbuch für Bodhránspieler. Hamburg: Schell Music, 2004.

Larrick, Geary H. "On the Technical Side: Master Lesson on Tam-Bas: Suite for Tambourine by James L. Moore." Percussive Notes SPACE 8, no. 3 (Spring 1970): 21-23.

Levine, David. "The Doubling Drummer." Percussive Notes 14, no. 3 (Spring/Summer 1976): 26.

________. "Playing Rock Tambourine." Modern Drummer 4, no. 1 (1977), 14.

Li Castro, Emiliano and Fabrizio Dado. "I tamburi a cornice di Glen Velez." Percussioni 2, no. 6 (1991), 36-39.

Lim, Malcolm. "Scott Feiner: Pandeiro Jazz." Percussive Notes 46, no. 5 (October 2008): 44-47.

Loney, Glenn. Musical Theater in America. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Long, Conor. Absolute Beginner's Bodhran Tutor. New York: Mel Bey.

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Mangia, Marizio. Metodo per tamburello—la pizzica: Tecnica di base e avanzata dell'antica tarantella. Nardò, Italy: Besa Editrice, SPACE 2001.

Marcon, Fernando. Percusión Brasileña. Madrid: Mandala, 2001.

Marcuse, Sibyl. A Survey of Musical Instruments. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.

________. Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975.

Mardani, B. Daf Self Learning. Tehran, Iran: publisher & year unknown. (Book & VCD).

Mason, Bernard S. Drums, Tomtoms, and Rattles: Primitive Percussion Instruments for Modern Use. New York: A.S. Barnes, SPACE 1938.

Matusky, Patricia Ann and Sooi Beng Tan. The Music of Malaysia: The Classical, Folk, and Syncretic Traditions. Burlington, VT: SPACE Ashgate Publishing, 2004.

Mazzinghi, Joseph. Twelve Airs for Pianoforte with Accompaniments for a Flute & Tambourine, Opus 38. London: Goulding, SPACE SPACE Phipps & D'Almaine, 1799 (includes the tambourine instructions from the Thomas Bolton waltzes).

McCrickard, Janet E. The Bodhran: The Background to the Traditional Irish Drum. Glastonbury: Fieldfare Arts & Design, 1987.

Mingyue, Liang [David Ming-Yueh Liang]. Music of the Billion: An Introduction to Chinese Musical Culture. New York:SPACE SPACE Heinrichshofen Edition, 1985.

Molina, Mauricio. "Frame Drums in the Medieval Iberian Peninsula." Ph.D. diss., City University of New York Graduate Center, SPACE 2006.

________. "In tympano Rex Noster tympanizavit: Frame Drums as Messianic Symbols in Medieval Spanish Representations of the SPACE Twenty-Four Elders of the Apocalypse." Music in Art 32 (2007): 100-123.

________. Frame Drums in the Medieval Iberian Peninsula. Kassel: Reichenberger, 2009.

Moreira, Airto. Airto: The Spirit of Percussion. Wayne, NJ: 21st Century Music Productions, 1985.

Morssal, Axamossadat Fayefeh-ye. The Legend of Daf: Daf Method Based on Folk and Khaneghahi Maghams (book & CD).

Moulton, Gary E. (editor). The Definitive Journals of Lewis & Clark, Vol. 3: Up the Missouri to Fort Mandan (Volume 3 of the SPACE Nebraska Edition). Lincoln: Bison Books, 2002.

________. The Definitive Journals of Lewis & Clark, Vol. 9: John Ordway and Charles Floyd (Volume 9 of the Nebraska Edition). SPACE Lincoln: Bison Books, 2003.

Moura, Fernando and Antônio Vicente. Casaca de Couro: Uma Biografia de Jackson do Pandeiro—o Rei do Ritmo. Brazil: Editora SPACE 34, 2001.

Mukuna, Kazadi wa. S.V.—"Congolese Music." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by Stanley Sadie. 20 SPACE volumes.  New York: Macmillan Press, 4, 1980, 659-661.

________. Interdisciplinary Study of the Ox and the Slave (Bumba-Meu Boi): A Satirical Music Drama in Brazil. Lewiston, NY: SPACE Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.

Mulvaney, Paul. "Tommy Hayes—On a Wing and a Bodhrán Player." Drums & Drumming 4, no. 4 (1988), 12-13.

Murphy, Martin. The International Bodhrán Book. Cork: Ossian, 1997.

Nagaoka, Keijiro. Pandeiro Manual Book. Tokyo, 2005.

Napolitano, Giuliana. "Carnaval: a história as baterias do samba." Batera 3, no. 21 (1999), 24-26.

________.  "Marcos Suzano: A força do pandeiro." Batera 3, no. 22 (1999), 70-73.

Nathans, Hans. The First Negro Minstrel Band and its Origins. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1952.

Nixdorff, Heidi. Zur Typologie und Geschichte der Rahmentrommeln. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1971.

O’Danachair, Caoimhín [Kevin Danaher]. "The Bodhrán: a Percussion Instrument." Journal of the Cork Historical and SPACE SPACE Archaeological Society 60, no. 192 (July/December 1955): 129-130.

Okubo, Hiroshi Chu. Frame Drum: 4 Basic Style. Tokyo: A&M, 2005.

O'Mahoney, Terry. "The Irish Bodhrán." Percussive Notes 37, no. 2 (1999): 34-40.

O’Riada, Seán. Our Musical Heritage. Edited by Thomas Kinsella. Portlaoise: Dolmen Press, 1982.

O Súilleabháin, Mícheál. "The Bodhrán." Treoir 6, no. 2 (1974): 4-7.

________. "The Bodhrán 2." Treoir 6, no. 5 (1974): 6-10.

________. The Bodhrán: An Easy to Learn Method for the Complete Beginner Showing the Different Regional Styles and SPACE SPACE Techniques. Dublin: Waltons Musical Instrument Galleries, 1984.

Pandeiro, Iê do and Luiz Roberto Sampaio. Estudos e Peças para Pandeiro Brasileiro. Brazil: 2008.

Parthasarathy, T.S. "The Kanjira." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore K. Venkataram. Bangalore: Percussive Arts SPACE SPACE Centre, 1996, 16-17.

Paul, Richard. "Tambourine." Percussive Notes 4, no. 4 (June 1966): 15.

Payson, Al. "Technique of Tambourine." The Ludwig Drummer 1, no. 1 (Fall 1961), 21.

________. Techniques of Playing Bass Drum, Cymbals, and Accessories (Tambourine, Castanets, Triangle, Tam-Tam). SPACE SPACE Northbrook: Payson Percussion Products, 1971.

Peters, Mitchell. "Tambourine Technique." The Instrumentalist 19 (December 1964), 71.

Piccioni, Andrea. Il Tamburello Italiano (The Italian Tamburello). Rome: Percussioni, 2006.

Pillai, Sri Palani Subramania and Varalakshmi Rajagopal. “Invention: Sri Manpoodiah Pillai—The Inventor of Kanjeera.” Layamani SPACE Layam 4, no. 23 (April/May 1998), 10-11.

Pinto, Tiago de Oliveira. Capoeira, Samba, Candomble: Afro-brasilianische Musik im Reconcavo, Bahia. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, SPACE 1991.

Pirozzolo, Fabio. "Central and Southern Italian Tambourines: Between Tradition and Innovation." M.A. Thesis, Tufts University, SPACE 2014.

Powell, Stephen. "Drums of the Southwest." Percussion Source 1, no. 3 (1996), 26-29.

Preston, Thomas. Instructions for the Tambourine, with a Selection of the Most Admired Airs, Waltzes, and Marches, Arranged for SPACE the Piano Forte, with an Accompaniment for the Tambourine. London: Preston, 1813 (most likely a reprint from 1799).

Raghavan, N. "Evolution of Khanjari from Folk Karadi Mazal." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore K. Venkataram. SPACE SBangalore: Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 18.

Randall, Lucy. The Goat Whackers Guide to Rhythm! UK: 2007.

Rao, B. Rajanikantha. "Khanjari and Ghatam Vidwans of Andhra Pradesh: (Past & Present)." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by SPACE Bangalore K. Venkataram. Bangalore: Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 65-66.

Redmond, Layne. "Rhythm and the Frame Drum: Attributes of the Goddess." Ear: Magazine of New Music 15, no. 4 (1990), 18-19, SPACE 21.

________. "When Women Were Drummers." Tantra: The Magazine no. 6 (1993).

________. "Second Annual PercPan Festival-Salvador, Brazil, March, 1995." Rhythm Music 4, no. 8 (1995), 18-20.

________. "A Short History of the Frame Drum." Percussive Notes 34, no. 5 (1996): 69-70, 72.

________. "When Women Were Drummers." Crafton Percussion Works (1996 catalog), 3-4.

________. "Bumba Meu Boi: Frame Drum Festival in São Luis, Maranhão." Percussive Notes 35, no. 3 (1997): 39-42.

________. When the Drummers Were Women: A Spiritual History of Rhythm. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1997.

________. "Rhythms of the Goddess, When Women Were Ecstatic Drummers." Shaman's Drum no. 48 (1998), 40-53.

Renaud, Philippe. "Carlo Rizzo: le tambourin dans tous ses etats." Improjazz no. 46 (1998), 6-10.

Rezai, Mehdi. Twenty Pieces for Daf: Intermediate Course, Vol. 1. Tehran, Iran: Mehdi Rezai, 2001.

Rice, Albert R. "A Selection of Instrumental and Vocal Tutors and Treatises Entered at Stationers' Hall from 1789 to 1818." The SPACE Galpin Society Journal 41 (October 1988): 16-23.

Robinson, N. Scott. "Glen Velez: World Music Total." Batera & Percussão 3, no. 28 (December 1999), 30-32.

________. "Glen Velez: A World of Sound in His Hands." Modern Drummer 24, no. 4 (April 2000), 72-76, 78-80, 82, 84, 86.

________. "Rhythm Legend Airto: Then & Now." Modern Drummer 24, no. 6 (June 2000), 68-72, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82.

________. "John Bergamo: Percussion World View." Percussive Notes 39, no. 1 (February 2001): 8-17.

________. "The New Percussionist in Jazz: Organological and Technical Expansion." M.A. thesis, Kent State University, 2002.

________. "Bear Talk." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 2003. (Score for pandeiro duo).

________. "Frame Drums and Tambourines." Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume Two: Performance SPACE and Production. Edited by John Shepherd, David Horn, Dave Laing, Paul Oliver, and Peter Wicke. New York: Continuum, SPACE 2003, 362-372.

________. "Handful." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 2003. (Score for solo bendir).

________. "Il Mano." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 2003. (Score for solo tamburello).

________. "Mirage." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 2003. (Score for riq duo).

________. "Shaken, Not Stirred." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 2003. (Score for solo riq).

________. "Global Positions." Baltimore: New World View Music, 2004. (Score for solo ghaval).

________. "Well in Hand." Baltimore: New World View Music, 2004. (Score for solo kanjira).

________. "Interior Design." Baltimore: New World View Music, 2006. (Score for frame drum ensemble).

________. "Carnatic Variations." Baltimore: New World View Music, 2009. (Score for frame drum ensemble).

________. "Performing the Past, Present and Beyond: Glen Velez and Researching Frame Drum History." Percussive Notes 51, no. SPACE 4 (July 2013): 30-34.

________. "Tradition and Renewal: The Development of the Kanjira in South India." Ph.D. diss., Kent State University, 2013.

________. "Hall of Fame: Glen Velez." Percussive Notes 52, no. 6 (November 2014): 16-21.

Robinson, N. Scott with Mike Brocken. "Bodhrán." Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume Two: SPACE SPACE Performance and Production. Edited by John Shepherd, David Horn, Dave Laing, Paul Oliver, and Peter Wicke. New York: SPACE Continuum, 2003, 349-350.

Rocca, Edgard Nunes "Bituca." Escola Brasileira de Música: uma visão Brasileira no ensino da música—ritmos Brasileiros e seus SPACE instrumentos de percussão 1. Rio de Janeiro: EBM, 1986.

Rosauro, Ney. The ABC's of Brazilian Percussion. New York: Carl Fischer Music, 2004 (book & DVD).

Ross, John. Six Waltzes and Four Marches for the Piano Forte or Harp, with an Accompaniment for a Tambourine & Triangle (ad SPACE libitum), Opus 8. London: Thomas Preston, 1812.

Sabanovich, Daniel. Brazilian Percussion Manual: Rhythms and Techniques with Application for the Drum Set. Van Nuys: Alfred SPACE Publishing Company, 1994.

Sabaruddin, Shamsiah with Surya Hafida Bahari and Zuzitah Abdul Samad. Kumpulan Kompang. Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Bakti SPACE Wira, 1993.

Salvation Army, The. Timbrel Manual. USA: The Music Bureau Western Territorial Headquarters, 1955.

Samani, Behnam. The Daf.

Sampaio, Luiz Roberto Cioce and Victor Daniel Camargo Bub. Pandeiro Brasileiro: Volume 1. Florianopolis, Brazil: Bernuncia SPACE Editora, 2004 (book & DVD).

________. Pandeiro Brasileiro: Volume 2. Florianopolis, Brazil: Bernuncia Editora, 2007 (book & DVD).

Sankaran, Trichy. "Talavadya Kacceri: The Percussion Ensemble of South India." Percussioner International 1, no. 2 (1986), 16, 19.

Santos, John. "The Brazilian Tamborim." Modern Percussionist 3, no. 3 (1987), 44, 46-47.

Sathyanarayana, Mahamahopadhyaya R. "Ghata and Khanjari: Scope for Research." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore SPACE K. Venkataram. Bangalore: Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 48-58.

Schiller, Rina. The Lambeg and the Bodhrán: Drums of Ireland. Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University of Belfast, SPACE 2001.

Schuyler, Philip D. "Moroccan Andalusian Music." The World of Music 20, no. 1 (1978): 33-46.

Sheronick, Yousif. Riq: Basics of the Middle Eastern Tambourine. New York: Bribie Recordings, 2005 (book & DVD).

Silva, Celsinho. Play Along Choro: Pandeiro. Brazil, 2008.

Sloane, Irving. Making Musical Instruments. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1978.

Slobin, Mark. "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe." In Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the SPACE SPACE World's Peoples. Jeff Todd Titon, editor. New York: Schirmer Books, 1992, second edition, 167-208.

Smith, Robin M. Power Bodhrán Techniques: A New Approach to the Celtic Drum. Florida: Mid-East Mfg. 1993.

Sofia, Sal. "John Bergamo: Rhyme, Rhythm, and Raga." Percussioner International 1, no. 4 (1987),  50-55.

Somanathan, N. "Scientific Studies on Kanjira." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore K. Venkataram. Bangalore: SPACE SPACE Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 12-15.

Stone, George L. "Technique of Percussion: Tambourine Thumb Trill." The International Musician (February 1952), 20.

Stottlemyer, Nathaniel. “l’Riq: The Arab Tambourine.” M.A. thesis, Liberty University, 2014.

Such, David G. "The Bodhrán: The Black Sheep in the Family of Traditional Irish Music Instruments." The Galpin Society Journal SPACE no. 38 (April 1985): 9-19.

Sulsbrück, Birger. Latin-American Percussion: Rhythms and Rhythm Instruments from Cuba and Brazil. Copenhagen: Den SPACERytmiske Aftenscoles Forlag/Edition Wilhelm Hansen, 1986.

Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, SPACE 1995.

Sundaram, B.M. "Eminent Khanjira and Ghatam Artistes of Yesteryears." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Edited by Bangalore K. SPACE SPACE Venkataram. Bangalore: Percussive Arts Centre, 1996, 59-64.

Sundaram, V.P.K. The Art of Drumming. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies, 1988.

Tarantino, Luigi. La notte dei tamburi e dei coltelli: la danza-scherma vel Salento. Nardò, Italy: Besa Editrice, 2001.

Tarlekar, G.H. and Nalini Tarlekar. Musical Instruments in Indian Sculpture. Pune: Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, 1972.

Tarighat, Mohammad. Rhythm, from Monastery to Ditty. Tehran, Iran: Chang Publications, 2003.

Taylor, Eric. Musical Instruments of South-East Asia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Thomas, T. Ajayi. History of Jùjú Music: A History of an African Popular Music from Nigeria. New York: Thomas Organization, SPACE 1992.

Tohidy, Emad. Shiveye Daf Navazi: The Method of Playing the Daf. Tehran: Farzaneh Books, 2003.

Tolledi, Fabio. Tamburi e coltelli. Nardò, Italy: Besa Editrice, 1996.

Tuzi, Grazia. "Alberi dei canti: Musica tradizionale in Cantabria." M.A. thesis, Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza," 1999.

Uribe, Ed. The Essence of Brazilian Percussion & Drum Set. Miami: Warner Bros. Publications, 1993.

Velez, Glen. "The Tambourine in Ancient Western Asia." Ear Magazine East 5, no. 5 (1980), 3.

________. "A Monograph on the Frame Drum, Ancestor of Our Modern Tambourine." Ear Magazine East 7, no. 3/4 (1982),  8-9.

________. Handance Duets for Frame Drums. New York: Framedrum Music, 2001.

________. Handance Method with Cueing and Performance Guide: An Introduction to Frame Drumming.  New York: Framedrum SPACE Music, 2002.

________. Bodhran Manual Vol. 1: Introduction—Frame Drumming "On The Knee Position". New York: Framedrum Music, SPACE 2004.

________. Tar Drum Manual. New York: Framedrum Music, 2004.

________. MediterrAsian Tambourines: An Introduction. New York: FrameDrum Music, 2004.

________. "'Mediterrasian' Tambourines." Percussive Notes 44, no. 5 (October 2006): 34, 36-37.

________. Bodhran Manual Vol. 2: Snapping—Frame Drumming "On The Knee Position". Montclair: Framedrum Music, 2013.

________. Bodhran Manual Vol. 3: Ki Ta Ta Ka's—Frame Drumming "On The Knee Position". Montclair: Framedrum Music, SPACE 2013.

________. Bodhran Manual Vol. 4: Snap-KiTa-Pa—Frame Drumming "On The Knee Position". Montclair: Framedrum Music, SPACE2013.

________. 13 Solos for Bodhran. Montclair: Framedrum Music, 2013.

________. "The Birth of the Tambourine: An Inside View." Percussive Notes 56, no. 4 (September 2018): 72.

Venkataram, Bangalore K. "Some Aspects of Ghatam and Khanjari." In Talavadya Seminar—2. Bangalore: Percussive Arts Centre, SPACE 1996, 33-34.

Viladot, Víctor Pedrol. Manual de Pandereta. Catalonia: Víctor Pedrol Viladot, 2002.

Vincent, David. "Basic Tambourine Technique." Percussive Notes 25, no. 5 (1987): 23-24.

Waterman, Christopher Alan. Jùjú: A Social History and Ethnography of an African Popular Music. Chicago: The University of SPACE Chicago Press, 1990.

________. "Yoruba Popular Music." Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: Africa. Edited by Ruth Stone. 10 volumes. New SPACE SPACE York: Garland Publishing, 1, 1998, 471-487.

Wentz, Brooke. "An Interview with Glen Velez." Op Magazine no. V (1984), 42-43.

Wiger, Randy. "Speaking in Rhythms: An Interview with Layne Redmond, Part 1." Moonbeams Journal 4 (1998).

________. "Speaking in Rhythms: An Interview with Layne Redmond, Part 2." Moonbeams Journal 5 (1998): 14-16.

Williams, B. Michael. "Four Solos for Frame Drums." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 1993. (Score for frame drums).

________. "Another New Riq." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 1999. (Score for solo riq).

________. "Bodhrán Dance." Everett: HoneyRock Publishing, 1999. (Score for solo bodhrán).

Winfield Capitaine, Fernando. "Notas sobre el carnaval en una comunidad negra de Veracruz." Cuadernos Afroamericanos, SPACE SPACE Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1, no. 1 (1975): 135-142.

Woodson, Craig. "The Effect of a Snare on the Tone of a Single-headed Frame Drum, the Moroccan Bendir." Selected Reports in SPACE Ethnomusicology 2 (1974): 105-110.

Yousefi, Zakariya. "Daf With Its Different Applications." Magham Musical Monthly 3 (2003), 88.



Abdul-Malik, Ahmed. CD. Jazz Sahara. Riverside OJCCD-1820-2. 1958: USA. (Bilal Abdurrahman-deff).

Abou-Khalil, Rabih. CD. Between Dusk and Dawn. Enja MMP-170886 2. 1987: Germany. (Glen Velez-riq, ghaval & Ramesh SPACE SPACE Shotham-kanjira).

________. CD. The Sultan's Picnic. Enja ENJ-8078-2. 1994: Germany. (Nabil Khaiat-frame drums).

Akatay Project. CD. Dest-be dest. Sony (# unknown). 2003: Turkey. (Mehmet Akatay-tef).

Amieva, Xuacu. CD. Tiempo de Mitos. Resistencia RESCD079. 1999: Spain. (Anerlis Gonzalez-pandereta from Asturias, Spain).

Ancient Future. CD. World Without Walls. Sona Gaia CD-163. 1990: USA. (Zakir Hussain-kanjira).

Anders, Robin Adnan. CD. Blue Buddha. Interworld CD 80902. 1990: USA. (Robin Adnan Anders-riq, tar).

________. CD. Omaiya. Rykodisc RCD 10442. 1999: USA. (Robin Adnan Anders-riq, tar, duff, mazhar).

Aquarela Carioca. CD. Aquarela Carioca. Visom 519 692-2. 1993: Brazil. (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

________. CD. Contos. Visom 519 693-2. 1993: Brazil. (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro, pandeirão).

Asza. CD. Asza. PacificLine Music PM0410CD. 1995: Canada. (Joseph "Pepe" Danza-pandeiro, riq, tambourine, tar).

Baptista, Cyro. CD. Villa Lobos Vira Loucous. Avant 061. 1997: Japan. (Cyro Baptista-pandeiro).

Bass, Kimberly. CD. Sacred Ground. Band Together 71004-2. 1997: USA. (Glen Velez-frame drum, kanjira).

Belloni, Alessandra. CD. Taranata: Dance of the Ancient Spider. Sounds True STA M114D. 2000: USA. (Alessandra SPACE SPACE SPACE Belloni-tamburello, tammorra & Glen Velez-frame drums).

Benford, Robert "Tigger." CD. Noise of Choice. Tigger Benford 01. 1996: USA. (Robert "Tigger" Benford-doira).

Bergamo, John. CD. On The Edge. CMP CD 27. 1986: Germany. (John Bergamo-frame drum).

Bergamo, John and Ed Dorsey. Cassette. Cloud Hands (Tambo). Interworld Music C-903. 1990: USA. (John Bergamo-frame SPACE SPACE drum, kanjira, Mongolian frame drum).

Bernstein, Barry. CD. Spirals: Unwinding for Vitality & Health. Relaxation 3206. 1998: USA. (Barry Bernstein-frame drum).

B'nèt Houariyat. CD. Poèmes d’Amour des Femmes du Sud Marocain: Love Poems of the Women of Southern Morocco. Al Sur SPACE ALCD 126. 1993: France. (Halima Zeiter, Malika Rahmi, Fat'na, Saîda Madrani, and Zahra Bani - bendir & tarr).

Bracha. CD. Bracha. CMP CD 34. 1988: Germany. (John Bergamo & Mark Nauseef-frame drums).

Bustan Abraham. CD. Temunot ba-halon ha-metsuyar (Pictures Through the Painted Window). Nada 8. 1994: Israel. (Zohar SPACE SPACE Fresco-frame drums).

Byrne, David & Brian Eno. CD. My Life in the Bush of Ghosts. Sire SRK 6093-2. 1981: USA. (Dennis Keeley-bodhrán).

Chieftains, The. LP. The Chieftains 1. Claddagh Records CC2. 1964: Ireland. (Peadar Mercier-bodhrán).

________. CD. Tears of Stone. BMG 09026-68968-2. 1999: USA. (Kevin Conneff-bodhrán).

Clastrier, Valentin, Michael Riessler & Carlo Rizzo. CD. Paludes. Wergo 8010-2. 1995: Germany. (Carlo Rizzo-tamburello).

Conjunto Jardín. CD. Floreando. Trova Recordings (# unknown). 2002: USA. (Gary Johnson-pandero [Mexican octagonal SPACE SPACE tambourine]).

Crafton, Randy. CD. Duologue. Lyrichord LYRCD 7430. 1997: USA. (Randy Crafton-frame drum).

Dairo M.B.E. & his Blue Spots, I.K. CD. Ashiko. Green Linnet Recordings GLCD 4108. 1994: USA. (Joel Oladip Olowo-Okere-samba SPACE drum).

Dalglish, Malcolm. CD. Pleasure. Ooolitic Music OM 1112. 1999: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-riq & Glen Velez-bodhrán w/brush).

Diga Rhythm Band. CD. Diga. Rykodisc RCD 10101. 1976: USA. (Zakir Hussain-tar).

Din, Hamza El. LP. Escalay/The Water Wheel: Oud Music from Nubia. Nonesuch H-72041. 1971: USA. (Hamza El Din-tar).

Dutz, Brad. CD. Brad Dutz. 9 Winds NWCD 0141. 1990: USA. (Brad Dutz-frame drum).

Ensemble Khreshchaty Yar. CD. Traditional Songs from the Ukraine—Vol. 2. Face Music FM 50032. 2002: Switzerland. SPACE SPACE (Volodymyr Biletsky-buben).

Esta. CD. Mediterranean Crossroads. Newance 330036-2. 1996: Israel. (Shlomo Deshet-frame drums).

E Zezi. CD. Pummarola Black. Lyrichord LYRCD 7426. 1994: USA. (various Italian players-tamburello).

Faltriqueira. CD. Faltriqueira. Resistencia Records (# unknown). 2002: Spain. (All female pandeiretera ensemble known as SPACE SPACE Faltriqueira includes Ana Leira, Olalla López, Maria López, Carolina Rodriguez, and Teresa Garcia-Galician pandeiretas).

Fariña, Richard & Mimi Fariña. CD. Reflections in a Crystal Wind. Vanguard VSD 79204. 1965: USA. (Bruce Langhorne-large SPACETurkish frame drum with pellet bells around interior—credited on recordings as "tambourine").

Fleck, Béla and the Flecktones. CD. Little Worlds. Columbia 86353. 2003: USA. (N. Ganesh Kumar-kanjira, Kevin SPACE SPACE SPACE Conneff-bodhrán).

Fraser, Alasdair with Paul Machlis. CD. The North Road. Narada ND-62755. 1989: USA. (Tommy Hayes-bodhrán).

Friesen, Eugene. CD. The Song of Rivers. New England Town Media NECD-3102. 1997: USA. (Glen Velez-frame drums, riq).

GaPa [Ganesh Anandan and Patrick Graham). CD. Imaginaria. GaPa GP 001. 2003: Canada. (Ganesh Anandan-frame drum kit, SPACE bodhrán, kanjira and Patrick Graham-bodhrán, riq).

Goodhart, Rich. CD. Divining Signs. Beginner's Mind Productions BMP 1001. 1988: USA. (Rich Goodhart-frame drum).

________. CD. Affirmative Reply. Beginner's Mind Productions BMP 1002. 1991: USA. (Rich Goodhart-frame drum).

________. CD. Never Give a Sword to a Man Who Can't Dance. Beginner's Mind Productions BMP 0403. 1995: USA. (Rich SPACE SPACE Goodhart-frame drum).

________. CD. The Gathering Sun. Beginner's Mind Productions BMP 0404. 1999: USA. (Rich Goodhart-frame drum).

Goyone, Daniel. CD. Daniel Goyone 2. Label Bleu LBLC 6500. 1986: France. (Trilok Gurtu-deff).

Gruntz, George. LP. Noon in Tunisia: Jazz Meets Arabia. MPS 15.132. 1967: Germany. (Numerous Bedouin musicians of SPACE SPACE Tunisia-bendir).

Grup Latanier. CD. Lapel Lorizon. [no date, # or label]. (Ganessen-ravanne & Ram Joganah-ravanne).

Gurtu, Trilok. CD. Crazy Saints. CMP CD 66. 1993: Germany. (Trilok Gurtu-kanjira).

Hands On'semble. CD. Hands On'semble. Tala Mala TM 1414. 1998: USA. (John Bergamo-frame drum, Randy Gloss-riq, SPACE SPACE tambourine, frame drum, Austin Wrinkle-frame drum, Andrew Grueschow-frame drum, Poovalur Srinivasan-kanjira).

Hellborg, Jonas with Shawn Lane and T.V. Selvaganesh. CD. Good People in Times of Evil. Bardo 040. 2000: USA. (T.V. SPACE SPACE Selvaganesh-kanjira).

Horizontal Vertical Band. 45 LP. Spontaneous Music. Other Media 80-7-1. 1980: USA. (Glen Velez-kanjira, pandeiro).

________. LP. Direct to Disc. Other Media 5681. 1981: USA. (Glen Velez-bodhrán, kanjira, pandeiro, doira).

I Giullardi di Piazza. CD. Earth, Sun & Moon. Lyrichord LYRCD 7427. 1996: USA. (Alessandra Belloni-tamburello & Glen SPACE SPACE Velez-kanjira).

Indaco. CD. Vento del deserto. il manifesto CD 013. 1997: Italy. (Arnaldo Vacca-bendir, bodhrán & tar).

________. CD. Amorgós. il manifesto CD 037. 1999: Italy. (Arnaldo Vacca-tamburello, riq, tar).

Kalani. CD. Pangea. Interworld 80912. 1994: USA. (Kalani-pandeiro).

Khaladj, Madjid. CD. Percussions D'Iran/Iranian Percussions. Buda Records 1978152. 1999: France. (Madjid Khaladj-dayré & daf).

________. CD. Anthologie des Rythmes Iraniens—Volume 2/Anthology of Iranian Rhythms. Buda Records 92741-2. 1999: France. SPACE (Madjid Khaladj-dayré & daf).

Kirk, Rahsaan Roland. CD. Volunteered Slavery. Rhino R2 71407. 1969: USA. (Joe Habad Texidor-tambourine).

Larkin, Patty. CD. Strangers World.  High Street 72902 10335-2. 1995: USA. (Glen Velez-bodhrán w/brush).

Leilía. CD. Leilía. Discmedi (# unknown). 1994: Spain. (All female pandeiretera ensemble known as Leilía includes Felisa Segade SPACE Otero, Ana Rodriguez Lareo Gómez, Mercedes Rodriguez Vazquez, Monserrat Rivera Crespo, Patricia Segade Otero, and SPACE Rosario Rodriguez-Galician pandeiretas).

________. CD. Madama. Discmedi (# unknown). 2003: Spain. (All female pandeiretera ensemble known as Leilía includes Felisa SPACE Segade Otero, Ana Rodriguez Lareo Gómez, Mercedes Rodriguez Vazquez, Monserrat Rivera Crespo, and Patricia Segade SPACE Otero-Galician pandeiretas).

Lockett, Peter. CD. Network of Sparks. M.E.L.T. 2000 50 10012. 1999: Belgium. (Peter Lockett-tar, frame drum, kanjira, SPACE SPACE tambourim).

Lockwood, Annea. CD. Thousand Year Dreaming. What Next? WN 0010. 1993: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-ghaval, tar).

Los Pleneros del Quinto Olivo. LP. Los Pleneros del Quinto Olivo. Joy LP 1203. 1980: Puerto Rico. (Various pandereta of Puerto SPACE Rico).

Mani, Karaikudi R. CD. Sruthi Laya Melodies—Vol. 1. Saregama CDNF 157054. 1986: India. (G. Harishankar-kanjira).

________. Cassette. Grand "Finale". Gayathri GA 4001 & 4002. 1988: India. (G. Harishankar-kanjira).

Manzanita. CD. Talco y Bronce. Columbia 494262 2. 1981: Spain. (Glen Velez-jingle ring, pandeiro, tambourine).

________. LP. La Quiero a Morir. CBS S 26716. 1985: Spain. (Glen Velez-jingle ring, tambourine).

Material. CD. Hallucination Engine. Axiom 314-518 351-2. 1993: USA. (Michael Baklouk-deff, tambourine).

Mississippi Jook Band. 78 LP. Hittin' the Bottle Stomp. Melotone 6-11-65. 1936: USA. (Uaroy Graves-tambourine).

Mohammadi, K. Ali. CD. Naleh Daf. Avayeh Chang (no #). (no date): Iran.

Morgan, Sister Gertrude. CD. Let's Make a Record. Preservation Hall Recordings VPS-06. 1957: USA. (Sister Gertrude SPACE SPACE SPACE Morgan-tambourine).

Mokave. CD. Mokave volume 1. Audioquest AQ-CD 1006. 1991: USA. (Glen Velez-bodhrán, riq, tar, jingle ring).

Morrison, Van. CD. Irish Heartbeat. Polydor 31453 7548-2. 1988: USA. (Kevin Conneff-bodhrán).

Moye, Famoudou Don. LP. Sun Percussion Volume One. Aeco 001. 1975: USA. (Don Moye-bendir).

New York's Ensemble for Early Music. CD. Istanpitta Vol.1: A Medieval Dance Band. Lyrichord LEMS 8016. 1995: USA. (Glen SPACE Velez-tambourine, tar, riq).

Nightark. CD. Picture. Novus 3007-2-N. 1986: USA. (Arto Tunçboyaciyan-tar).

________. CD. Moments. Novus 3028-2-N. 1988: USA. (Arto Tunçboyaciyan-tar).

Nudes, The. CD. Velvet Sofa. Acoustic America 102. 1997: USA. (Randy Crafton-riq).

Oskorri. CD. Ura. Elkar KD-556. 2000: Spain. (Glen Velez-frame drums & Natxo de Felipe-panderoa).

Pandeiro, Jackson do [José Gomes Filho]. CD. A Popularidade de Jackson do Pandeiro. PolyGram M-523 454-2. 1994: Brazil SPACE SPACE (compilation of recordings originally from 1960 & 1981). (Jackson do Pandeiro-pandeiro).

Parra, Eliseo. CD. De ayer mañana. World Village Music 498008. 2005: Spain. (Eliseo Parra-pandereta, pandero cuadrado SPACE SPACE quartet-unknown).

Pavéz, Héctor. CD. Chile: Atacame to Cape Horn. Arc R 627680. 2003: Chile. (Ignacio Hernandez Maturana-pandero from Chile).

Peón, Mercedes. CD. Isué. Resistencia (# unknown). 2000: Spain. (Mercedes Peón-Galician pandeireta).

________. CD. Ajrú. Resistencia (# unknown). 2003: Spain. (Mercedes Peón-Galician pandeireta).

Pepper, Jim. LP. Pepper's Powwow. Embryo SD 731. 1971: USA. (Jim Pepper & Gilbert Pepper-Native American frame drums).

Pilgrimage. CD. 9 Songs of Ecstasy. Point Music 314536 201-2. 1997: USA. (Glen Velez-bodhrán).

Plena Libre. CD. Plena Libre. RykoLatino RLCD 1006. 1998: USA. (Various Puerto Rican pandereta).

Plimley, Paul and Trichy Sankaran. CD. Ivory Ganesh Meets Doctor Drums. Songlines SGL 1523-2. 1998: Canada. (Trichy SPACE SPACE Sankaran-kanjira).

Porter, Cole. CD. Kiss Me, Kate. Columbia 4140. 1949: USA. (The score calls for both pandeiro and tambourine in the percussion SPACE parts).

Pourmehdi, Houman and John Bergamo. CD. Syncopation. Liän Records LIÄN 112. 2000: USA. (Houman Pourmehdi-Persian daf SPACE and dayereh & John Bergamo-frame drum).

Pourmehdi, Houman and Rajeev Taranath. CD. The Call of Love: The Art of Persian and Indian Improvisations. Liän Records LIÄN SPACE 114. 2001: USA. (Houman Pourmehdi-Persian daf).

Redmond, Layne & the Mob of Angels. CD. Since the Beginning. Redmond Recordings RRCD11. 1992: USA. (Layne SPACE SPACE SPACE Redmond-frame drum, bodhran, tambourine & Pam Warren-tambourine).

Redmond, Layne & Tommy Brunjes. CD. Being in Rhythm: A Guided Meditation. Interworld CD 927. 1997: USA. (Layne SPACE SPACE Redmond & Tommy Brunjes-frame drums).

________. CD. Lotus of Light: Chanting the Chakras. Interworld CD 930. 1999: USA. (Layne Redmond-frame drums & Tommy SPACE Brunjes-kanjira).

Reich, Steve. CD. Tehillim. ECM 1215 78118-21215-2. 1982: USA. (Glen Velez, Bob Becker, Russ Hartenberger, Garry Kvistad, SPACE SPACE Steve Reich, Gary Schall-tamborim).

Remember Shakti. CD. The Believer. Verve 549 944-2. 1999: USA. (T.V. Selvaganesh-kanjira).

________. CD. Saturday Night in Bombay. Verve 440 014 164-2. 2000: USA. (T.V. Selvaganesh-kanjira).

Repercussion Unit. CD. In Need Again. CMP CD 31. 1987:  Germany. (John Bergamo-kanjira).

Rizzo, Carlo. CD. Schérzo "Orientale". Al Sur ALCD 214. 1997: France. (Carlo Rizzo-tamburello, tammorra, polytimbral SPACE SPACE tambourine & David Frouvelle-tamburello, tammorra).

Robinson, N. Scott. CD. World View. United One Records U1CD 402 4569 3027 2/New World View Music NWVM CD-01. 1994: SPACE USA/Germany. (N. Scott Robinson-riq, frame drum with brush, all-wood frame drum, ghaval & Glen Fittin-riq).

________. CD. Things That Happen Fast. New World View Music NWVM CD-02. 2002: USA. (N. Scott Robinson-bodhrán, riq, SPACE pandeiro, tamburello, bendir & Nolan Warden-pandeiro).

Rudolph, Adam and Moving Pictures. CD. Skyway. Soul Note 121269. 1994: Italy. (Adam Rudolph-frame drum).

________. CD. Contemplations. Meta 002. 1997: USA. (Adam Rudolph-bendir & Hamid Drake-bendir).

Satake, Akira. CD. Cooler Heads Prevail. Alula ALU-1003. 1997: USA. (Glen Velez-bendir, tamborim, all wood frame drum, riq & SPACE Bill Bleisch-riq, Akira Satake-tambourine, Jesse Winch-bodhrán).

Seale, Alan. CD. Child of the Moon. I Virtuosi 503. 1995: USA. (Randy Crafton-riq).

Shakti. CD. Natural Elements. Columbia 48122. 1977: USA. (T. H. "Vikku" Vinayakram-kanjira).

Sivaraman, Umayalpuram K. CD. Laya-Dhara. Charshur Digital Workstation CDW115D. 2005: India. (B. SPACE SPACE SPACE SPACE Shreesundarkumar-kanjira).

Stoltzman, Richard. CD. New York Counterpoint. RCA 5944-2-RC. 1987: USA. (Glen Velez-riq, pandereta-Puerto Rico, SPACE SPACE thon-rammana, frame drum).

Subdudes, The. CD. Lucky. High Street 10350-2. 1991: USA. (Steve Amedée-tambourine with blastick).

Suzano, Marcos. CD. Sambatown. MPB 063016719-2. 1996: Brazil. (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

Tammurriata di Scafati. CD. 'O Vesuvio. Il Pontesonoro PVD 96.19. 1993/1995/1997: Italy. (Antonio Torre-tammorra, Antonio SPACE Matrone-tammorra, Nando Citarella-tammorra & tamburello, and Elia Ciricillo-tamburello).

Tapia eta Leturia. CD. Tapia eta Leturia Band. Elkarlanean KD-412. 1995: Spain. (Xabier Berazaluze "Leturia"-panderoa from SPACEBasque Country, Spain).

3 Mustaphas 3. CD. Shopping. Shanachie 64006. 1987: USA. (Isfa Ani Mustapha-riq).

________. CD. Heart of Uncle. Rykodisc RCD 20156. 1989: USA. (Robin Adnan Anders-riq).

ToKenKi. CD. Dance Latitude. TKM 2001. 1991: USA. (Kim Atkinson-tar).

Trance Mission. CD. Trance Mission. City of Tribes COTCD-002. 1993: USA. (John Loose-frame drums).

Trio Globo. CD. Trio Globo. Silverwave SD 806. 1994: USA. (Glen Velez-frame drum, bodhrán, all-wood frame drum, tar, riq, SPACE SPACE doira, tamborim).

________. CD. Carnival of Souls. Silverwave SD 904. 1995: USA. (Glen Velez-riq, frame drums).

Various Artists. CD. Authentic Music of the American Indian. Legacy International CD 312. No date given: USA. (Various Native SPACE Americans-various Native American frame drums).

________. CD. Pure Bodhrán: The Definitive Collection—1927/2000. Big Beat Music BBM 001. 1927-2000: Ireland. (Features SPACE many bodhrán players including Tommy Hayes, Brian Fleming, Rónán Ó’Snodaigh, Glen Velez, and many others).

________. CD. Good Time Blues: Harmonicas, Kazoos, Washboards, and Cow-bells. Columbia Legacy CK 46780. 1991: USA SPACE (contains the 1936 78 LP listed in this discography plus others). (Uaroy Graves-tambourine).

________. CD. Songs & Rhythms of Morocco. Lyrichord LYRCD 7336. 1979: USA. (Various Moroccans-bendir).

________. CD. Musical Traditions of Portugal. Smithsonian Folkways CD SF 40435. 1994: USA. (various Portuguese frame SPACE SPACE drums & tambourines).

________. CD. Jazz Meets the World no. 4: Jazz Meets Africa. MPS 531 720-2. 1997: Germany (contains recordings from the SPACE Gruntz LP in this discography). (Various Bedouin musicians of Tunisia-bendir).

Vasanthkumar, P. LP. Veena. Inreco 2401-5066. 1979: India. (G. Harishankar-kanjira).

Vasconcelos, Naná. CD. Storytelling. EMI 7243 8 334 442 0. 1995: USA. (Naná Vasconcelos-pandeiro).

Vasconcelos, Naná, Steve Gorn, Badal Roy, and Mike Richmond. CD. Asian Journal. Nomad NMD 50303. 1981: USA. (Badal SPACERoy-kanjira).

Vega, Suzanne. CD. Days of Open Hand. A&M 7502-15293-2. 1990: USA. (Glen Velez-frame drum).

Velez, Glen. CD. Handance. Nomad NMD 50301. 1984: USA. (Glen Velez-riq, bendir, tar, bodhrán, adufe, pandeiro & Layne SPACE SPACE Redmond-bendir, tar).

________. CD. Internal Combustion. CMP CD 23. 1985: Germany. (Glen Velez-duff, adufe, frame drum, doira, bendir, bodhrán & SPACE Layne Redmond-bendir, frame drum).

________. CD. Seven Heaven. CMP CD 30. 1987: Germany. (Glen Velez-riq, thon-rammana, all-wood frame drum, bodhrán, SPACE ghaval & Layne Redmond-rammana, ghaval).

________. CD. Assyrian Rose. CMP CD 42. 1989: Germany. (Glen Velez-pandero, ghaval, all wood frame drum, riq, bendir, SPACE SPACE tamborim & Layne Redmond-Japanese frame drum, ghaval, bodhrán).

Winter, Paul. CD. Road. A&M CD 0826. 1970: USA. (Collin Walcott-buben).

________. CD. Sun Singer. Living Music LMR-CD 003. 1983: USA. (Glen Velez-bodhrán, bendir).

________. CD. Canyon. Living Music LD0006. 1985: USA. (Glen Velez-ghaval).

Wubbenhorst, John and Facing East. CD. Facing Beloved. Facing East [no #]. 2003: USA. (N. Ganeshkumar-kanjira).



Acuña, Alex. The Rhythm Collector. 2007. Drum Workshop (DVD). (Alex Acuña-Puerto Rican pandereta).

Adolfo, Antonio. Secrets of Brazilian Music. Kansas City, MO: Music Source International, 1990 (video). (Antonio Adolfo-pandeiro SPACE & tamborim).

Alaoui, Ali. The Darabuka: The Arab World of Percussion. 2006. Le Salon de Musique (double DVD). (Ali Alaoui-bendir & riqq).

Amedée, Steve. The Amedée Way. 1999. Quel Ta Music (video). (Steve Amedée-tambourine with blastick).

Anders, Robin Adnan.  Percussion of the World. 1991. Mid-East Mfg. (video). (Robin Adnan Anders-mazhar, riq, tar & Tim SPACE SPACE O'Keefe-pandeiro, Todd Menton-bodhrán).

Belloni, Alessandra. Rhythm is the Cure: Southern Italian Tambourine. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay, 2007 (DVD & book).

Bergamo, John. The Art & Joy of Hand Drumming. 1990. Interworld Music (video). (John Bergamo-bodhrán, frame drum, SPACE SPACE kanjira).

________. Finding Your Way with Hand Drums. 1991. Interworld Music (video). (John Bergamo & students-frame drums).

________. Hand Drumming with John Bergamo. 1997. Tal Mala (video/book/CD). (John Bergamo-frame drum, tambourine).

Borhani, Ahmad. Daff Study. 2006. PNME Music (DVD or CD-ROM). (Ahmad Borhani-daf).

Caswell, Chris. How to Play the Bodhran. Lark in the Morning. (video). (Chris Caswell-bodhrán).

Chieftains, The. The Chieftains in China. 1984. Shanachie SH204 (video). (Kevin Conneff-bodhrán).

Corea, Chic. The Ultimate Adventure: Live in Barcelona. 2007. Concord (DVD). (Ruben Dantas-bendir).

Cortesão, Jorge. The Brazilian Pandeiro—Vol. 1. 1999. Bridges to Productions (video). (Jorge Cortesão-pandeiro).

________. The Brazilian Frame Drum: The Pandeiro—Vol. 2. 1999. Bridges to Productions (video). (Jorge Cortesão-pandeiro).

Coskun, Murat. "Finger Dance"—How to Play Frame Drums. 2004 (DVD). (Murat Coskun-frame drums).

Dalglish, Malcolm. Hymnody of Earth (revised). 1993. KET (video). (Glen Velez-ghaval, riq, bodhrán).

________. The Selchie and the Fisherman. 1997. Live Multimedia, Inc. (video). (Glen Velez-tar, riq, bodhrán).

Davis, Miles. Miles Electric: A Different Kind of Blue. 2004. Eagle Eye Media EE39020-9 (DVD). (Airto Moreira-pandeiro).

Duarte, Cassio. Introduction to Brazilian Percussion. 2003. LP LPV136-D (DVD). (Cassio Duarte-pandeiro & tamborim).

Funk Brothers, The. Standing in the Shadows of Motown. 2002. Artisan (DVD). (Jack Ashford-tambourine).

Gallen, Ray. Celtic Beat: Traditional Music from Ireland. 2001 (video). (Ray Gallen-bodhrán).

________. Irish Heartbeat: A Bodhrán Tutorial. 2006 (DVD). (Ray Gallen-bodhrán).

Ganesh & Kumaresh. Amazing Fusion Concerts. 2003. Music Today M 03108 (VCD). (P. Sathish Kumar-kanjira).

Gil, Gilberto. Unplugged. 1994. Warner Music Vision (video). (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

________. Electrácustico. 2004. WEA International (DVD). (Marcos Suzano & Gustavo di Palva-pandeiro).

Gillas, Verna (director). Rara. 1978. Original Music (video). (unidentified player-bassé).

Ginestet, Bruno with Jean-Christophe Jaquin, Philippe Nasse, and Klaus Blasquiz. Bateria: In the Heart of Rio's Baterias—The SPACE Samba de Enredo. 2001 (DVD & booklet).

Grady, Mance. Mance Grady's Play the Irish Drum. 1990/2005 (DVD). (Mance Grady-bodhrán).

Great Big Sea. Great Big DVD. 2004. Zoe Records (DVD). (Séan McCann-bodhrán).

________. Courage & Patience & Grit. 2006. Zoe Records (DVD). (Séan McCann-bodhrán).

Gruntz, George with Don Cherry & Bedouin Musicians of Tunisia. Noon in Tunisia: Jazz Meets Arabia. 1969. Des Arts Populares SPACE Tunesiennes  (Germany, film). (Numerous Bedouin musicians of Tunisia-bendir).

Hadouk Trio. En Concert au Satellit Café. 2004. Naïve NV 802611 (PAL DVD). (Steve Shehan-free-hand grip ocean drum).

Hannigan, Steafan. The Bodhrán DVD: A Complete Audio-Visual Course for the Traditional Bodhrán. 1991. Ossian (video).  SPACE SPACE (Steafan Hannigan-bodhrán).

Harms, Ben. Basic Technique for Hand Drum and Tambourine. 1997. Harms Historical Percussion (video). (Ben Harms-riq).

Hayes, Tommy. Bodhrán, Bones and Spoons. 1994. C.W. Productions (video). (Tommy Hayes-bodhrán).

Hellborg, Jonas with Shawn Lane and the Vinayakram Brothers. Paris: Concert at New Morning. 2001. Bardo BARDO 243 (DVD). SPACE (T.V. Selvaganesh-kanjira).

Hussain, Zakir. Zakir and His Friends. 1997. Interartes and Horizonte Film (Germany, film). (Zakir Hussain-kanjira).

Iyer, Dr. Semmangudi R. Srinivasa. A Live Concert of Dr. Semmangudi R. Srinivasa Iyer. 2002. Sri ThiagarajaSangeetha Vidwath SPACE Samajam VCDS001 (VCD). (G. Harishankar-kanjira). [Also released as The Concert on DVD].

John, Elton. To Russia . . . with Elton: A Single Man in Concert with Ray Cooper. 1979. Twentieth Century-Fox Video (video). SPACE (Ray Cooper-tambourine).

Kaspar, Souhail. Foundations of Arabic Rhythm with Souhail Kaspar—Master Class at Home Series Vol. 1: Egyptian Tablah SPACE(Doumbek) and Riqq (Tambourine). 2004 (DVD). (Souhail Kaspar-riq).

Kuckhermann, David. World Percussion 1: Frame Drums. 2006. David Kuckhermann (DVD). (David Kuckhermann-frame drums).

________. World Percussion 2: Riq and Darbuka. 2006. David Kuckhermann (DVD). (David Kuckhermann-riq).

Ganeshkumar, N. The Art of Kanjira: South Indian Tambourine. 2005. Octagonal Madness (DVD). (N. Ganeshkumar-kanjira).

Leigh, Marla and Ken Shorley. Time Zone: Duets for Darabuka and Frame Drum. 2004 (DVD). (Marla Leigh-frame drums).

Lenine. Cité. 2004. BMG (DVD). (Ramiro Musotto-pandeiro).

Ludin, Hakim. Modern Percussionist Vol. 1: South Indian Counting and Kanjira. 2005 (DVD). (Hakim Ludin-kanjira).

________. Modern Percussionist Vol. 2: Frame Drums. 2005 (DVD). (Hakim Ludin-frame drums & Behnam Samani-daf).

Mafufo, Uncle [Armando Mafufo]. Uncle Mafufo's Riqs e Defs: A Practical Approach to Middle Eastern Frame Drums, Volume II SPACE (DVD). (Armando Mafufo-riq & def).

Mani, Karaikudi R. "Sruthi Laya Ensemble." 2001. Sruthi Laya Kendra (DVD). (G. Harishankar-kanjira).

Mardani, B. Daf Self Learning. Publisher & year unknown. (VCD & book).

Mercier, Mel with Seamus Egan. Bodhrán and Bones. Interworld Music (video). (Mel Mercier-bodhrán).

Moreira, Airto. Harvest Jazz. 1985. Sony (video). (Airto Moreira-pandeiro & Laudir de Oliveira-tamborim).

________. Brazilian Percussion. 1993. DCI Music Video VHO182 (video). (Airto Moreira-pandeiro, tamborim).

Muallem, Yinon. Arabic Percussion. 2004. Or-Tav Music Publications (video). (Yinon Muallem-riq).

Musotto, Ramiro. Sudaka: Ao Vivo. 2005. MCD MCD 304 (DVD & CD set). (Ramiro Musotto-panderão).

Nagi Mohammed, Karim. Riqq: Arab Tambourine, Complete Instruction—Technique, Rhythms, Accompaniment. 2005. Xauen SPACE Music (DVD). (Karim Nagi Mohammed-riq).

Nataraj, Amrit. Khanjira . . . A Journey Within. 2007 (DVD). (Amrit Nataraj-kanjira).

Noa and The Solis String Quartet. Live in Israel: April 28, 2005. 2005. Sisu Home Entertainment 24 (DVD). (Zohar Fresco-riq & SPACE bodhran).

Page, Jimmy and Robert Plant. No Quarter: Unledded. 1994. MTV (DVD). (Jim Sutherland-bodhrán).

Piccioni, Andrea. Il Tamburello Italiano—The Italian Tamburello. 2009 (DVD).

Redmond, Layne. Ritual Drumming (A Sense of Time: Explorations of the Tambourine and Riq). 1992. Interworld Music/Warner SPACE Brothers (video). (Layne Redmond-riq).

________. Rhythmic Wisdom. 1999. Interworld (video). (Layne Redmond-bodhrán & Tommy Brunjes-frame drum).

Remember Shakti. Shakti. 2000. Verve 016 578-2 (CD/DVD silk box set). (T.V. Selvaganesh-kanjira).

________. The Way of Beauty. 1976, 2000 & 2004. Emarcy 21174 (DVD). (T.V. Selvaganesh-kanjira).

Rentak Irama Melayu. Paluan Kompang. 2006. Insictech Musicland 51357-65929 (VCD). (Rentak Irama Melayu-kompang SPACE SPACE ensemble).

Robinson, N. Scott. Hand Drumming: Exercises for Unifying Technique. 1996. Wright Hand Drum Company WHD-001 (video). (N. SPACE Scott Robinson-all clay frame drum, all wood frame drum, riq & Glen Fittin-all clay frame drum).

Rosauro, Ney. The ABC's of Brazilian Percussion. New York: Carl Fischer Music, 2004 (DVD & book). (Ney Rosauro-pandeiro & SPACE tamborim).

Ryan, Pete. Easy Irish Bodhran: the King of Drums. 2002. Outlet Music (video).

Sakamoto, Ryuichi. Moto.tronic. 1987-2003. Sony 93044 (DVD & CD set). (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

Sampaio, Luiz Roberto Cioce and Victor Daniel Camargo Bub. Pandeiro Brasileiro: Volume 1. Florianopolis, Brazil: Bernuncia SPACE Editora, 2004 (DVD & book).

________. Pandeiro Brasileiro: Volume 2. Florianopolis, Brazil: Bernuncia Editora, 2007 (DVD & book).

Sankaran, Trichy. Mrdangam and Kanjira Clinic. 1994. Percussive Arts Society PAS9401 (video). (Trichy Sankaran-kanjira).

Santos, Marcos. A Modern Approach to Pandeiro. 2007 (DVD). (Marcos Santos-pandeiro).

Sherinian, Zoe. This is a Music: Reclaiming an Untouchable Drum. 2011 (DVD). Sherinain Productions. (Traditional Tamil SPACE   performers on parai).

Sheronick, Yousif. Riq: Basics of the Middle Eastern Tambourine. 2005. Bribie Recordings (DVD & book). (Yousif Sheronick-riq).

Shimizu, Eiji. Fluctuat nec mergitur. 2004. Floating Moon (DVD). (Eiji Shimizu-bodhran & tar).

Silva, Paulinho [Paulo Henrique Gomes da Silva]. Pandeiro Popular Brasileiro: Vídeo-aula—Pandeiro. 2002. Paulinho Silva SPACE SPACE (CD-ROM). (Paulinho Silva-pandeiro).

________. Vídeo-aula de Pandeiro: 1, 2 e 3—Pandeiro Popular Brasileiro. 2005. Paulinho Silva (DVD - set of 3). (Paulinho SPACE SPACE Silva-pandeiro).

Sting [Gordon Sumner]. All This Time. 2001. Uptown/Universal 493169 (DVD). (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

Subbulakshmi, M.S. Swaralaya Puraskaram Concert: Vol. I & II. 1997. Saregama CDNF V47001 (VCD). (Latha Ramachar-kanjira).

Suzano, Marcos. Marcos Suzano Presents the Way to Master Pandeiro. 2006. Latina LAD-7001 (DVD). (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

________. Pandeiro Brasileiro. 2008. Kalango (DVD). (Marcos Suzano-pandeiro).

Torpey, Frank. Bodhran CD-ROM Tutorial. 2001. Mad for MFT007 (CD-ROM). (Frank Torpey-bodhrán).

Various Artists. Konkombe: The Nigerian Pop Music Scene. 1980. Shanachie Record Corp. (video). (Examples of the Nigerian SPACE SPACE octagonal tambourine or jùjú drum by Benjamin Aderounmu Atoneye also known as "Kokoro").

________. The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance (volumes 1, 5, 7, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28). 1988. JVC, Victor SPACE Company of Japan (videos).  (Examples of frame drums from Morocco, South Korea, Russia, China, Thailand, Uzbekistan, SPACE Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Siberia, Albania, Iraq, Lebanon, Qatar, Tunisia, Belorussia, Ukraine, USA, Canada & Brazil).

________. Glastonbury: The Movie. 1995. Image Entertainment (DVD). (Airto Moreira-pandeiro solo).

________. The JVC/Smithsonian Folkways Video Anthology of Music and Dance of Africa vol. 1: Egypt/Uganda/Senegal. 1996. SPACE JVC, Victor Company of Japan  (video). (Examples of tar, riq & mazhar in Egypt).

________. The JVC/Smithsonian Folkways Video Anthology of Music and Dance of Americas vol. 5—Central & South America. SPACE 1996. JVC, Victor Company of Japan (video). (Examples of pandeiro & tamborim).

________. The Spirit of Samba. 1998. Shanachie (video). (Examples of pandeiro and tamborim players in samba and capoeira).

________. Modern Drummer Festival Weekend 1998 (Sunday). 1999. Warner Brothers (video). (Glen Velez-bodhrán w/brush, SPACE kanjira, riq).

________. Pizzicata. 1999. Milestone (Italy, video). (Examples of tamburello, directed by Edoardo Winspeare).

________. Sangue Vivo. 2000. Sidecar Films (Italy, video). (Examples of tammorra and tamburello, directed by Edoardo SPACE SPACE Winspeare).

________. American Roots Music 1: When First Unto This Country. 2001. Palm Pictures (DVD). (African American Gospel SPACE SPACE tambourine).

________. Musiche e canti di tradizione dell'area sardo-mediterranea. 2002. Studiorama (video). (Examples of tamburello from SPACE Calabria and Puglia).

________. Mystic Iran: The Unseen World. 2002. Wellspring (DVD). (Female dervishes of Kurdistan-daf).

________. Beyond Words. 2003 (DVD). (Ghaderi Dervishes of Kurdistan-daf).

________. Congotronics 2: Buzz 'n' Rumble from the Urb 'n' Jungle. Crammed Discs CRAW 29 (DVD & CD). 2006: Belgium. SPACE (Unidentified patenge player from the ensemble Bolia We Ndenge from the Democratic Republic of Congo).

________. Kompang. 2006. Music Valley MVM 05.102 (VCD). (Various kompang ensembles).

Vasanthakumari, M.L. 100 Years of Recorded Music in India: Vol. I & II. 1983. Doordarshan (VCD). (G. Harishankar-kanjira).

Velez, Glen. Drumbeats. 1989. Remo HD-7514-DB (video). (Glen Velez-tar & Layne Redmond-tar).

________. The Fantastic World of Frame Drums. 1990. Interworld Music (video). (Glen Velez-bodhrán, riq, ghaval, mazhar & SPACE Layne Redmond-riq, ghaval).

________. Handance Method for Personal Rhythmic Development and Hand Drumming 1. 1996. Interworld Music/Warner SPACE Bros. VH0284 (video). (Glen Velez-tar, Eva Atsalis-tar & Yousif Sheronick-tar).

________. Handance Method for Personal Rhythmic Development and Hand Drumming 2. 1996. Interworld Music/Warner SPACE Bros. VH0285 (video). (Glen Velez-tar, Eva Atsalis-tar & Yousif Sheronick-tar).

Wallace, Robert. Total Rhythm: Learn to Play Pandeiro Volume 1. 2005. Total Rhythm (DVD). (Robert Wallace-pandeiro).

________. Total Rhythm: Learn to Play Pandeiro Volume 2. 2005. Total Rhythm (DVD). (Robert Wallace-pandeiro).

Washington, Rosalie "Lady Tambourine." The Fighting Temptations. 2003. Paramount (DVD). (Rosalie "Lady Tambourine" SPACE SPACE Washington-tambourine).

Winter Consort, Paul.  Canyon Consort. 1985. A&M/Windham Hill (video). (Glen Velez-bodhrán).

Zandkarimin, Gholamreza. How to Play Persian Drum Daf. (CD-ROM).

©2003 - N. Scott Robinson. All rights reserved.

(Updated 2014)


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